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      Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and safety of lesinurad, a selective uric acid reabsorption inhibitor, in healthy adult males

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          Abstract

          Lesinurad is a selective uric acid reabsorption inhibitor under investigation for the treatment of gout. Single and multiple ascending dose studies were conducted to evaluate pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and safety of lesinurad in healthy males. Lesinurad was administered as an oral solution between 5 mg and 600 mg (single ascending dose; N=34) and as an oral solution or immediate-release capsules once daily (qday) between 100 mg and 400 mg for 10 days under fasted or fed condition (multiple ascending dose; N=32). Following single doses of lesinurad solution, absorption was rapid and exposure (maximum observed plasma concentration and area under the plasma concentration–time curve) increased in a dose-proportional manner. Following multiple qday doses, there was no apparent accumulation of lesinurad. Urinary excretion of unchanged lesinurad was generally between 30% and 40% of dose. Increases in urinary excretion of uric acid and reductions in serum uric acid correlated with dose. Following 400 mg qday dosing, serum uric acid reduction was 35% at 24 hours post-dose, supporting qday dosing. A relative bioavailability study in healthy males (N=8) indicated a nearly identical pharmacokinetic profile following dosing of tablets or capsules. Lesinurad was generally safe and well tolerated.

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          Most cited references 11

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          Rising burden of gout in the UK but continuing suboptimal management: a nationwide population study

          Objectives To describe trends in the epidemiology of gout and patterns of urate-lowering treatment (ULT) in the UK general population from 1997 to 2012. Methods We used the Clinical Practice Research Datalink to estimate the prevalence and incidence of gout for each calendar year from 1997 to 2012. We also investigated the pattern of gout management for both prevalent and incident gout patients. Results In 2012, the prevalence of gout was 2.49% (95% CI 2.48% to 2.51%) and the incidence was 1.77 (95% CI 1.73 to 1.81) per 1000 person-years. Prevalence and incidence both were significantly higher in 2012 than in 1997, with a 63.9% increase in prevalence and 29.6% increase in incidence over this period. Regions with highest prevalence and incidence were the North East and Wales. Among prevalent gout patients in 2012, only 48.48% (95% CI 48.08% to 48.89%) were being consulted specifically for gout or treated with ULT and of these 37.63% (95% CI 37.28% to 38.99%) received ULT. In addition, only 18.6% (95% CI 17.6% to 19.6%) of incident gout patients received ULT within 6 months and 27.3% (95% CI 26.1% to 28.5%) within 12 months of diagnosis. The management of prevalent and incident gout patients remained essentially the same during the study period, although the percentage of adherent patients improved from 28.28% (95% CI 27.33% to 29.26%) in 1997 to 39.66% (95% CI 39.11% to 40.22%) in 2012. Conclusions In recent years, both the prevalence and incidence of gout have increased significantly in the UK. Suboptimal use of ULT has not changed between 1997 and 2012. Patient adherence has improved during the study period, but it remains poor.
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            Pharmacodynamic, pharmacokinetic and tolerability evaluation of concomitant administration of lesinurad and febuxostat in gout patients with hyperuricaemia.

            The aim of this study was to evaluate the pharmacodynamics (PDs), pharmacokinetics (PKs) and safety of lesinurad (selective uric acid reabsorption inhibitor) in combination with febuxostat (xanthine oxidase inhibitor) in patients with gout.
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              Hyperuricemia and associated diseases.

              After introduction of urate-lowering therapy, asympotomatic hyperuricemia was treated with allopurinol or uricosuric agents in the belief that hyperuricemia and/or gout caused chronic kidney disease. Epidemiologic studies in the 1970s, however, failed to confirm the view that hyperuricemia and gout were independent risk factors for chronic kidney disease. As a result, urate-lowering pharmacotherapy is generally not recommended at the present time in the management of asymptomatic hyperuricemia even though recent epidemiological, experimental, and clinical studies have prompted reexamination of a causal role for hyperuricemia (with or without gout) in chronic kidney disease as well as other important disorders including cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and metabolic syndrome. The issue of such a role remains unresolved and this article reviews the current status of the relationship between hyperuricemia and associated disorders.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2015
                02 July 2015
                : 9
                : 3423-3434
                Affiliations
                Ardea Biosciences, Inc. (a member of the AstraZeneca group), San Diego, CA, USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Zancong Shen, Ardea Biosciences, Inc., 9390 Towne Centre Drive, San Diego, CA 92121, USA, Tel +1 858 652 6623, Email zshen@ 123456ardeabio.com
                Article
                dddt-9-3423
                10.2147/DDDT.S85193
                4494180
                © 2015 Shen et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Original Research

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