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      The growth of acute kidney injury: a rising tide or just closer attention to detail?

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          Abstract

          Acute kidney injury (AKI), previously termed acute renal failure, is associated with increased mortality, prolonged hospital stay, and accelerated chronic kidney disease (CKD). Over the past 2 decades, dramatic rises in the incidences of AKI have been reported, particularly within the United States. The question arises as to whether these changes reflect actual increases in disease incidence, or are potentially explained by the introduction of consensus definitions that rely on small standardized changes in serum creatinine, changes in coding and reimbursement, or increasingly available and more liberal use of dialysis. In this review, we explore the secular trends in AKI incidence in North America and Western Europe and its potential contributors.

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          Most cited references 175

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          Acute kidney injury, mortality, length of stay, and costs in hospitalized patients.

          The marginal effects of acute kidney injury on in-hospital mortality, length of stay (LOS), and costs have not been well described. A consecutive sample of 19,982 adults who were admitted to an urban academic medical center, including 9210 who had two or more serum creatinine (SCr) determinations, was evaluated. The presence and degree of acute kidney injury were assessed using absolute and relative increases from baseline to peak SCr concentration during hospitalization. Large increases in SCr concentration were relatively rare (e.g., >or=2.0 mg/dl in 105 [1%] patients), whereas more modest increases in SCr were common (e.g., >or=0.5 mg/dl in 1237 [13%] patients). Modest changes in SCr were significantly associated with mortality, LOS, and costs, even after adjustment for age, gender, admission International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification diagnosis, severity of illness (diagnosis-related group weight), and chronic kidney disease. For example, an increase in SCr >or=0.5 mg/dl was associated with a 6.5-fold (95% confidence interval 5.0 to 8.5) increase in the odds of death, a 3.5-d increase in LOS, and nearly 7500 dollars in excess hospital costs. Acute kidney injury is associated with significantly increased mortality, LOS, and costs across a broad spectrum of conditions. Moreover, outcomes are related directly to the severity of acute kidney injury, whether characterized by nominal or percentage changes in serum creatinine.
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            Rapid increase in hospitalization and mortality rates for severe sepsis in the United States: a trend analysis from 1993 to 2003.

            To determine recent trends in rates of hospitalization, mortality, and hospital case fatality for severe sepsis in the United States. Trend analysis for the period from 1993 to 2003. U.S. community hospitals from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample that is a 20% stratified sample of all U.S. community hospitals. Subjects of any age with sepsis including severe sepsis who were hospitalized in the United States during the study period. None. Utilizing International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes for septicemia and major organ dysfunction, we identified 8,403,766 patients with sepsis, including 2,857,476 patients with severe sepsis, who were hospitalized in the United States from 1993 to 2003. The percentage of severe sepsis cases among all sepsis cases increased continuously from 25.6% in 1993 to 43.8% in 2003 (p < .001). Age-adjusted rate of hospitalization for severe sepsis grew from 66.8 +/- 0.16 to 132.0 +/- 0.21 per 100,000 population (p < .001). Age-adjusted, population-based mortality rate within these years increased from 30.3 +/- 0.11 to 49.7 +/- 0.13 per 100,000 population (p < .001), whereas hospital case fatality rate fell from 45.8% +/- 0.17% to 37.8% +/- 0.10% (p < .001). During each study year, the rates of hospitalization, mortality, and case fatality increased with age. Hospitalization and mortality rates in males exceeded those in females, but case fatality rate was greater in females. From 1993 to 2003, age-adjusted rates for severe sepsis hospitalization and mortality increased annually by 8.2% (p < .001) and 5.6% (p < .001), respectively, whereas case fatality rate decreased by 1.4% (p < .001). The rate of severe sepsis hospitalization almost doubled during the 11-yr period studied and is considerably greater than has been previously predicted. Mortality from severe sepsis also increased significantly. However, case fatality rates decreased during the same study period.
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              KDOQI Clinical Practice Guidelines and Clinical Practice Recommendations for Diabetes and Chronic Kidney Disease.

                (2007)
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Kidney Int
                Kidney Int
                Kidney International
                Nature Publishing Group
                0085-2538
                1523-1755
                January 2015
                17 September 2014
                : 87
                : 1
                : 46-61
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Vanderbilt University Medical Center , Nashville, Tennessee, USA
                [2 ]UCL Center for Nephrology, Royal Free Hospital, University College London Medical School , London, UK
                Author notes
                [* ]Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Vanderbilt University Medical Center , MCN S3223, Nashville, Tennessee 37232, USA. E-mail: edward.siew@ 123456vanderbilt.edu
                Article
                ki2014293
                10.1038/ki.2014.293
                4281297
                25229340
                Copyright © 2015 International Society of Nephrology

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/

                Categories
                Review

                Nephrology

                acute renal failure, nephrotoxicity, epidemiology and outcomes

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