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      Association of ESR1 (rs2234693 and rs9340799), CETP (rs708272), MTHFR (rs1801133 and rs2274976) and MS (rs185087) polymorphisms with Coronary Artery Disease (CAD)

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          Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a complex disease resulting from the cumulative and interactive effects of large number of genes along with environmental exposure. Therefore, the present study was envisaged as an effort to study the association of candidate genes ESR1 (rs2234693 and rs9340799), CETP (rs708272), MTHFR (rs1801133 and rs2274976) and MS (rs185087) polymorphisms with the risk of CAD, targeting the populations of Jammu (JandK).


          A total of 400 confirmed CAD patients and 400 healthy controls were enrolled for the present study. Genotyping was done by polymerase chain reaction- restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP).


          ESR1 gene (rs9340799) polymorphism was found to be associated with CAD in all the genetic models. The haplotype analysis of ESR1 (rs2234693 and rs9340799) gene revealed that C-G haplotype was conferring approximately 5-fold risk and T-A haplotype was adding 1.4-fold risk towards the disease. ‘T’ allele of MTHFR rs1801133 SNP was observed to be responsible for development of CAD in our study population ( p < 0.0001). In case of MTHFR (rs1801133 and rs2274976) gene, the haplotype T-G was observed to confer 4.7-fold risk towards CAD whereas haplotype C-G provided nearly a 1.7 fold protection towards development of CAD. For MS gene, rs185087 was also found to be associated with CAD in a co-dominant ( p = 0.003 and p = 0.03), dominant ( p = 0.001) and allelic models (p = 0.001). The gene-gene interaction revealed strong epistasis between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), ESR1 rs9340799 and MTHFR rs2274976. Furthermore, the dendrogram for gene-environment dataset indicated moderately synergistic interaction between CETP rs708272 and physical inactivity.


          In the study under reference, a significant association of ESR1- XbaI (rs9340799), MTHFR C677T (rs1801133) and MS A2756G (rs185087) gene polymorphisms with the susceptibility of CAD in the population of Jammu region (JandK) has been observed.

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          Most cited references 56

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          Executive Summary of The Third Report of The National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, And Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol In Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III).

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            A WHO expert consultation addressed the debate about interpretation of recommended body-mass index (BMI) cut-off points for determining overweight and obesity in Asian populations, and considered whether population-specific cut-off points for BMI are necessary. They reviewed scientific evidence that suggests that Asian populations have different associations between BMI, percentage of body fat, and health risks than do European populations. The consultation concluded that the proportion of Asian people with a high risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease is substantial at BMIs lower than the existing WHO cut-off point for overweight (> or =25 kg/m2). However, available data do not necessarily indicate a clear BMI cut-off point for all Asians for overweight or obesity. The cut-off point for observed risk varies from 22 kg/m2 to 25 kg/m2 in different Asian populations; for high risk it varies from 26 kg/m2 to 31 kg/m2. No attempt was made, therefore, to redefine cut-off points for each population separately. The consultation also agreed that the WHO BMI cut-off points should be retained as international classifications. The consultation identified further potential public health action points (23.0, 27.5, 32.5, and 37.5 kg/m2) along the continuum of BMI, and proposed methods by which countries could make decisions about the definitions of increased risk for their population.
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              Multifactor-dimensionality reduction reveals high-order interactions among estrogen-metabolism genes in sporadic breast cancer.

              One of the greatest challenges facing human geneticists is the identification and characterization of susceptibility genes for common complex multifactorial human diseases. This challenge is partly due to the limitations of parametric-statistical methods for detection of gene effects that are dependent solely or partially on interactions with other genes and with environmental exposures. We introduce multifactor-dimensionality reduction (MDR) as a method for reducing the dimensionality of multilocus information, to improve the identification of polymorphism combinations associated with disease risk. The MDR method is nonparametric (i.e., no hypothesis about the value of a statistical parameter is made), is model-free (i.e., it assumes no particular inheritance model), and is directly applicable to case-control and discordant-sib-pair studies. Using simulated case-control data, we demonstrate that MDR has reasonable power to identify interactions among two or more loci in relatively small samples. When it was applied to a sporadic breast cancer case-control data set, in the absence of any statistically significant independent main effects, MDR identified a statistically significant high-order interaction among four polymorphisms from three different estrogen-metabolism genes. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a four-locus interaction associated with a common complex multifactorial disease.

                Author and article information

                BMC Cardiovasc Disord
                BMC Cardiovasc Disord
                BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
                BioMed Central (London )
                18 July 2020
                18 July 2020
                : 20
                [1 ]GRID grid.412986.0, ISNI 0000 0001 0705 4560, Institute of Human Genetics, University of Jammu, ; Jammu, JandK 180006 India
                [2 ]GRID grid.412986.0, ISNI 0000 0001 0705 4560, Human Genetics Lab, Department of Zoology, , University of Jammu, ; Jammu, JandK India
                [3 ]GRID grid.412997.0, ISNI 0000 0001 2294 5433, Department of Zoology, , Government Degree College, ; Samba, JandK India
                [4 ]Department of Cardiology, Acharaya Shri Chander College of Medical Sciences (ASCOMS) and Hospital, Sidhra, Jammu, JandK India
                © The Author(s) 2020

                Open AccessThis article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.

                Research Article
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                © The Author(s) 2020

                Cardiovascular Medicine

                cad, cetp, esr1, mthfr, ms, polymorphism


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