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      Lexical and Cognitive Underpinnings of Verbal Fluency: Evidence from Bengali-English Bilingual Aphasia

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          Abstract

          Research in bilingual healthy controls (BHC) has illustrated that detailed characterization of verbal fluency along with separate measures of executive control stand to inform our understanding of the lexical and cognitive underpinnings of the task. Such data are currently lacking in bilinguals with aphasia (BWA). We aimed to compare the characteristics of verbal fluency performance (semantic, letter) in Bengali–English BWA and BHC, in terms of cross-linguistic differences, variation on the parameters of bilingualism, and cognitive underpinnings. BWA showed significant differences on verbal fluency variables where executive control demands were higher (fluency difference score, number of switches, between-cluster pauses); whilst performed similarly on variables where executive control demands were lower (cluster size, within-cluster pauses). Despite clear cross-linguistic advantage in Bengali for BHC, no cross-linguistic differences were noted in BWA. BWA who were most affected in the independent executive control measures also showed greater impairment in letter fluency condition. Correlation analyses revealed a significant relationship for BWA between inhibitory control and number of correct responses, initial retrieval time, and number of switches. This research contributes to the debate of underlying mechanisms of word retrieval deficits in aphasia, and adds to the nascent literature of BWA in South Asian languages.

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          Most cited references 57

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          Comparing an Individual's Test Score Against Norms Derived from Small Samples

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            Investigation of the single case in neuropsychology: confidence limits on the abnormality of test scores and test score differences.

            Neuropsychologists often need to estimate the abnormality of an individual patient's test score, or test score discrepancies, when the normative or control sample against which the patient is compared is modest in size. Crawford and Howell [The Clinical Neuropsychologist 12 (1998) 482] and Crawford et al. [Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 20 (1998) 898] presented methods for obtaining point estimates of the abnormality of test scores and test score discrepancies in this situation. In the present study, we extend this work by developing methods of setting confidence limits on the estimates of abnormality. Although these limits can be used with data from normative or control samples of any size, they will be most useful when the sample sizes are modest. We also develop a method for obtaining point estimates and confidence limits on the abnormality of a discrepancy between a patient's mean score on k-tests and a test entering into that mean. Computer programs that implement the formulae for the confidence limits (and point estimates) are described and made available.
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              The unity and diversity of executive functions and their contributions to complex "Frontal Lobe" tasks: a latent variable analysis.

              This individual differences study examined the separability of three often postulated executive functions-mental set shifting ("Shifting"), information updating and monitoring ("Updating"), and inhibition of prepotent responses ("Inhibition")-and their roles in complex "frontal lobe" or "executive" tasks. One hundred thirty-seven college students performed a set of relatively simple experimental tasks that are considered to predominantly tap each target executive function as well as a set of frequently used executive tasks: the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), Tower of Hanoi (TOH), random number generation (RNG), operation span, and dual tasking. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the three target executive functions are moderately correlated with one another, but are clearly separable. Moreover, structural equation modeling suggested that the three functions contribute differentially to performance on complex executive tasks. Specifically, WCST performance was related most strongly to Shifting, TOH to Inhibition, RNG to Inhibition and Updating, and operation span to Updating. Dual task performance was not related to any of the three target functions. These results suggest that it is important to recognize both the unity and diversity of executive functions and that latent variable analysis is a useful approach to studying the organization and roles of executive functions. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Behav Sci (Basel)
                Behav Sci (Basel)
                behavsci
                Behavioral Sciences
                MDPI
                2076-328X
                08 October 2020
                October 2020
                : 10
                : 10
                Affiliations
                [1 ]School of Psychology and Clinical Language Sciences, University of Reading, Reading RG6 7BE, UK; t.marinis@ 123456uni-konstanz.de
                [2 ]Moss Rehabilitation Research Institute, Elkins Park, PA 19027, USA
                [3 ]Department of Linguistics, University of Konstanz, D-78457 Konstanz, Germany
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: abhijeet.patra14@ 123456gmail.com (A.P.); a.bose@ 123456reading.ac.uk (A.B.); Tel.: +44-118-378-6105 (A.B.)
                Article
                behavsci-10-00155
                10.3390/bs10100155
                7600573
                33050055
                © 2020 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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