Dental caries, a predominant childhood and adolescence affliction, has numerous factors implicated in its pathogenesis. Electronic cigarettes (ECs) have recently gained popularity among the younger population. Various factors, such as the EC liquid composition and aerosols, are associated with the development of dental caries. This review explains numerous EC-related factors which may lead to dental caries. An electronic search was conducted in Medline (Pubmed), Scopus, and Embase databases to evaluate the original research investigating the role of ECs in developing dental caries. About 12 included studies in the review indicated that factors such as the composition of e-liquids and aerosols are significant in the progression of dental caries. Specifically, cariogenic sugars such as sucrose, fructose, glucose, aldehydes, and flavors such as menthol, cinnamon, and strawberry in the e-liquids contribute to dental caries. They are toxic to oral commensals such as Streptococcus gordonii, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus intermedius, and Streptococcus oralis and promote the proliferation of cariogenic pathogens such as Streptococcus mutans ( S. mutans) which causes dental caries. However, further validation of the effects of ECs on the development of dental caries is warranted through clinical trials.