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      Strong Photoacoustic Signal Enhancement by Coating Gold Nanoparticles with Melanin for Biomedical Imaging

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          Mucus-penetrating nanoparticles for drug and gene delivery to mucosal tissues.

          Mucus is a viscoelastic and adhesive gel that protects the lung airways, gastrointestinal (GI) tract, vagina, eye and other mucosal surfaces. Most foreign particulates, including conventional particle-based drug delivery systems, are efficiently trapped in human mucus layers by steric obstruction and/or adhesion. Trapped particles are typically removed from the mucosal tissue within seconds to a few hours depending on anatomical location, thereby strongly limiting the duration of sustained drug delivery locally. A number of debilitating diseases could be treated more effectively and with fewer side effects if drugs and genes could be more efficiently delivered to the underlying mucosal tissues in a controlled manner. This review first describes the tenacious mucus barrier properties that have precluded the efficient penetration of therapeutic particles. It then reviews the design and development of new mucus-penetrating particles that may avoid rapid mucus clearance mechanisms, and thereby provide targeted or sustained drug delivery for localized therapies in mucosal tissues.
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            Some interesting properties of metals confined in time and nanometer space of different shapes.

            The properties of a material depend on the type of motion its electrons can execute, which depends on the space available for them (i.e., on the degree of their spatial confinement). Thus, the properties of each material are characterized by a specific length scale, usually on the nanometer dimension. If the physical size of the material is reduced below this length scale, its properties change and become sensitive to its size and shape. In this Account we describe some of the observed new chemical, optical, and thermal properties of metallic nanocrystals when their size is confined to the nanometer length scale and their dynamical processes are observed on the femto- to picosecond time scale.
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              Biomedical photoacoustic imaging

              Paul Beard (2011)
              Photoacoustic (PA) imaging, also called optoacoustic imaging, is a new biomedical imaging modality based on the use of laser-generated ultrasound that has emerged over the last decade. It is a hybrid modality, combining the high-contrast and spectroscopic-based specificity of optical imaging with the high spatial resolution of ultrasound imaging. In essence, a PA image can be regarded as an ultrasound image in which the contrast depends not on the mechanical and elastic properties of the tissue, but its optical properties, specifically optical absorption. As a consequence, it offers greater specificity than conventional ultrasound imaging with the ability to detect haemoglobin, lipids, water and other light-absorbing chomophores, but with greater penetration depth than purely optical imaging modalities that rely on ballistic photons. As well as visualizing anatomical structures such as the microvasculature, it can also provide functional information in the form of blood oxygenation, blood flow and temperature. All of this can be achieved over a wide range of length scales from micrometres to centimetres with scalable spatial resolution. These attributes lend PA imaging to a wide variety of applications in clinical medicine, preclinical research and basic biology for studying cancer, cardiovascular disease, abnormalities of the microcirculation and other conditions. With the emergence of a variety of truly compelling in vivo images obtained by a number of groups around the world in the last 2–3 years, the technique has come of age and the promise of PA imaging is now beginning to be realized. Recent highlights include the demonstration of whole-body small-animal imaging, the first demonstrations of molecular imaging, the introduction of new microscopy modes and the first steps towards clinical breast imaging being taken as well as a myriad of in vivo preclinical imaging studies. In this article, the underlying physical principles of the technique, its practical implementation, and a range of clinical and preclinical applications are reviewed.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                (View ORCID Profile)
                Journal
                Advanced Functional Materials
                Adv. Funct. Mater.
                Wiley
                1616301X
                February 2018
                February 2018
                December 15 2017
                : 28
                : 7
                : 1705607
                Affiliations
                [1 ]DWI - Leibniz Institut für Interaktive Materialien e.V.; Forckenbeckstraße 50 52076 Aachen Germany
                [2 ]Institute for Experimental Molecular Imaging; University Clinic and Helmholtz Institute for Biomedical Engineering; RWTH Aachen University; Pauwelstraße 30 52074 Aachen Germany
                [3 ]I. Physikalisches Institut (1A); RWTH Aachen University; Templergraben 55 52056 Aachen Germany
                [4 ]Laboratorio de Bioinorgánica; Facultad de Química Universidad de La Habana; La Habana 10400 Cuba
                [5 ]IPF - Leibniz-Institut für Polymerforschung Dresden e.V.; Institute of Physical Chemistry and Polymer Physics; Hohe Straße 6 01069 Dresden Germany
                [6 ]Cluster of Excellence Center for Advancing Electronics Dresden (cfaed); Technische Universität Dresden; 01062 Dresden Germany
                Article
                10.1002/adfm.201705607
                c6978e41-0fdc-4fea-b1f3-bafe34f3d367
                © 2017

                http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/tdm_license_1.1

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