Puberty is a complex maturation process that begins during fetal life and persists until the acquisition of reproduction function. The fundamental event that activates puberty occurs in the hypothalamus. A complex neuron network stimulates GnRH secretion, which stimulates pituitary gonadotropin secretion and then gonadal steroid secretion. Pubertal delay is defined as the presentation of clinical signs of puberty 2-2.5 SD later than in the normal population. Three major groups of etiopathogeneses are described: (1) hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, (2) hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, and (3) constitutional delay of puberty (CDP) - the most common cause of delayed puberty in boys. The differential diagnosis between CDP and isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism remains difficult. Mechanisms of pubertal timing are now better understood and genetic or epigenetic causes can explain some pubertal delays. However, there are still unexplained mechanisms. Treatment of delayed puberty is necessary to ensure full pubertal development for the adolescent and in case of hypogonadism, to restore fertility. Finally, precocious diagnosis of hypogonadism is primordial but can be difficult during childhood and in cases of partial hypogonadism. The study of genetic pubertal diseases or of different animal models could help to discover new diagnostic or therapeutic tools.