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      Pathogen recognition and innate immunity.

      Cell

      immunology, Toll-Like Receptors, Signal Transduction, Receptors, Cell Surface, RNA, Double-Stranded, metabolism, RNA Helicases, Models, Biological, physiology, Membrane Glycoproteins, Immunity, Innate, Humans, Gram-Positive Bacteria, Gram-Negative Bacteria, Drosophila, Cytoplasm, biosynthesis, Cytokines, Cell Wall, Animals, Adaptation, Physiological

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          Abstract

          Microorganisms that invade a vertebrate host are initially recognized by the innate immune system through germline-encoded pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs). Several classes of PRRs, including Toll-like receptors and cytoplasmic receptors, recognize distinct microbial components and directly activate immune cells. Exposure of immune cells to the ligands of these receptors activates intracellular signaling cascades that rapidly induce the expression of a variety of overlapping and unique genes involved in the inflammatory and immune responses. New insights into innate immunity are changing the way we think about pathogenesis and the treatment of infectious diseases, allergy, and autoimmunity.

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          Journal
          16497588
          10.1016/j.cell.2006.02.015

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