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      Instability-Induced Pattern Transformation in Soft Metamaterial with Hexagonal Networks for Tunable Wave Propagation

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          Abstract

          Instability-induced pattern transformations of the architectured multi-phase soft metamaterial under bi-axial compression were explored. The soft metamaterial is composed of two phases: a soft matrix and a reinforcing hexagonal network embedded in the matrix. Equi-biaxial loading is found to induce both micro- and macro- instabilities in the networked architecture. Two types of instability patterns were observed, dependent upon the architecture geometry and the material combination. The critical strain for triggering instability and the two resulting types of patterns was derived, and a theoretical criterion for the transition between the two patterns was determined. Type I patterns retain the original periodicity of the architecture but wrinkles the network walls whereas Type II patterns transform the overall periodicity of the architecture while bending the network walls. Elastic wave propagation analysis was performed for the two distinct patterns under both stressed and stress-free conditions: a change in band gaps is found for both instability-induced pattern transformations, but differs for each type due to their dramatic difference in structure transformation (i.e. Type I wall wrinkling vs. Type II periodicity switching). The distinguished mechanical behavior and the rich properties of this category of multi-phase soft metamaterial can be used to design new smart materials with switchable functionalities controllable by deformation.

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          Most cited references 19

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            A new epoxy-based ink is reported, which enables 3D printing of lightweight cellular composites with controlled alignment of multiscale, high-aspectratio fiber reinforcement to create hierarchical structures inspired by balsa wood. Young's modulus values up to 10 times higher than existing commercially available 3D-printed polymers are attainable, while comparable strength values are maintained.
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              3D soft metamaterials with negative Poisson's ratio.

              Buckling is exploited to design a new class of three-dimensional metamaterials with negative Poisson's ratio. A library of auxetic building blocks is identified and procedures are defined to guide their selection and assembly. The auxetic properties of these materials are demonstrated both through experiments and finite element simulations and exhibit excellent qualitative and quantitative agreement. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                boyce@columbia.edu
                rudykh@wisc.edu
                yaning.li@unh.edu
                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                2045-2322
                7 August 2018
                7 August 2018
                2018
                : 8
                Affiliations
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2192 7145, GRID grid.167436.1, Department of Mechanical Engineering, , University of New Hampshire, ; Durham, NH USA
                [2 ]ISNI 0000000121102151, GRID grid.6451.6, Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, , Technion–Israel Institute of Technology, ; Haifa, Israel
                [3 ]ISNI 0000000419368729, GRID grid.21729.3f, School of Engineering and Applied Science, , Columbia University, ; New York, 10027 USA
                [4 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2167 3675, GRID grid.14003.36, Department of Mechanical Engineering, , University of Wisconsin-Madison, ; Madison, WI USA
                Article
                30381
                10.1038/s41598-018-30381-1
                6081427
                30087416
                © The Author(s) 2018

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

                Funding
                Funded by: FundRef https://doi.org/10.13039/100000001, National Science Foundation (NSF);
                Award ID: CMMI-1362893
                Award ID: CMMI-1554468
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: FundRef https://doi.org/10.13039/100000005, U.S. Department of Defense (DOD);
                Award ID: FA9550-16-1-0011
                Award Recipient :
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