Objective To explore the association between factors affecting language development and Chinese dyslexia, providing scientific evidence for prevention and intervention of dyslexia.
Methods Twelve elementary schools were selected in Baoan, Shenzhen. The parents and head teachers of 12 868 children in grade 3-5 were surveyed by the Questionnaire for Children’s Reading Ability, the Dyslexia Checklist for Chinese Children and the Pupil Rating Scale Revised Screening for Learning Disabilities.
Results The prevalence rate of dyslexia was 2.71%, with 349 children suffering from dyslexia. Gender, parental education and occu-pations, family income, whether parents work away from home before their child was 3 years old, average time mother spends withher child daily and number of languages spoken in family had statistical significance on dyslexia (all P<0.05). After adjusting forparental education and occupations, and family income, the children who spent more than 1 hour with their mothers per day had asignificantly reduced risk of dyslexia (1-2: OR = 0.46; 3-4: OR = 0.45; 5-6: OR = 0.40; >7 h: OR = 0.36, P<0.05); the childrenliving in families where two languages were used for communication had a significantly reduced risk of dyslexia ( OR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.57–0.96, P = 0.02). Children with a history of language development disorders had a significantly increased risk of dyslexia ( OR = 17.30, 95% CI = 7.86–38.09, P<0.01).
Conclusion Increase of time mother spend with their child daily and paying more atten-tion to the children with a history of language development disorders can help to prevent the occurrence of dyslexia.
【摘要】 目的 探索儿童语言发育影响因素与汉语阅读障碍的关系, 为预防和干预阅读障碍提供科学依据。 方法 整群选取深圳市宝安区12所小学12 868名三至五年级儿童家长和班主任, 采用儿童阅读能力调査问卷《儿童汉语阅读障碍量表》和《儿童学习障碍筛査量表》进行问卷调査。 结果 共检出阅读障碍儿童349例, 检出率为2.71%。性别、父母文化程度、父母职业、家庭月收人、儿童3岁前父母是否在外地工作、母亲平均每天与孩子相处的时间、家庭常用语言种类等因素对阅读障碍检出率差异均有统计学意义( P值均<0.05)。校正父母文化程度、父母职业和家庭月收人后, 母亲平均每天与孩子相处的时间和家庭常用语言种类与阅读障碍发病风险存在统计学关联, 表现为儿童每天与母亲相处时间>1 h降低阅读障碍的发病风险(1~2 h: OR = 0.46;3~4 h: OR = 0.45; 5~6 h: OR = 0.40; >7 h: OR = 0.36, P值均<0.05);家庭常用两种语言降低阅读障碍的发病风险( OR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.57~0.96, P = 0.02)。此外, 有语言发育相关疾病史儿童的阅读障碍发病风险升髙( OR = 17.30, 95% CI = 7.86~38.09, P<0.01)。 结论 增加母亲每日陪伴孩子的时间、加强对曾患语言发育相关疾病儿童的关注有助于预防阅读障碍的发生。