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      Structural characteristics and gel properties of pectin from citrus physiological premature fruit drop

      , , , , , , , , ,
      Carbohydrate Polymers
      Elsevier BV

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          Abstract

          <p xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" class="first" id="d1060608e142">This study is the first to extract and characterize pectin from citrus physiological premature fruit drop. The extraction yield of pectin reached 4.4 % by acid hydrolysis method. The degree of methoxy-esterification (DM) of citrus physiological premature fruit drop pectin (CPDP) was 15.27 %, indicating it was low-methoxylated pectin (LMP). The monosaccharide composition and molar mass test results showed CPDP was a highly branched macromolecular polysaccharide (β: 0.02, Mw: 2.006 × 105 g/mol) with rich rhamnogalacturonan I domain (50.40 %) and long arabinose and galactose side chain (32.02 %). Based on the fact that CPDP is LMP, Ca2+ was used to induce CPDP to form gels. Textural and rheological tests showed that the gel strength and storage modulus of CPDP were higher than commercial citrus pectin (CP) used in this paper due to the lower DM and rich neutral sugar side chains of CPDP. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) results showed CPDP had stable gel network structure. </p>

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          Chemistry and uses of pectin--a review.

          Pectin is an important polysaccharide with applications in foods, pharmaceuticals, and a number of other industries. Its importance in the food sector lies in its ability to form gel in the presence of Ca2+ ions or a solute at low pH. Although the exact mechanism of gel formation is not clear, significant progress has been made in this direction. Depending on the pectin, coordinate bonding with Ca2+ ions or hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions are involved in gel formation. In low-methoxyl pectin, gelation results from ionic linkage via calcium bridges between two carboxyl groups belonging to two different chains in close contact with each other. In high-methoxyl pectin, the cross-linking of pectin molecules involves a combination of hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions between the molecules. A number of factors--pH, presence of other solutes, molecular size, degree of methoxylation, number and arrangement of side chains, and charge density on the molecule--influence the gelation of pectin. In the food industry, pectin is used in jams, jellies, frozen foods, and more recently in low-calorie foods as a fat and/or sugar replacer. In the pharmaceutical industry, it is used to reduce blood cholesterol levels and gastrointestinal disorders. Other applications of pectin include use in edible films, paper substitute, foams and plasticizers, etc. In addition to pectolytic degradation, pectins are susceptible to heat degradation during processing, and the degradation is influenced by the nature of the ions and salts present in the system. Although present in the cell walls of most plants apple pomace and orange peel are the two major sources of commercial pectin due to the poor gelling behavior of pectin from other sources. This paper briefly describes the structure, chemistry of gelation, interactions, and industrial applications soft pectin.
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            Pectins: structure, biosynthesis, and oligogalacturonide-related signaling

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              Light scattering and the absolute characterization of macromolecules

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Carbohydrate Polymers
                Carbohydrate Polymers
                Elsevier BV
                01448617
                June 2023
                June 2023
                : 309
                : 120682
                Article
                10.1016/j.carbpol.2023.120682
                36906363
                c6b4324f-97ed-4e5e-9129-cb941fa28efd
                © 2023

                https://www.elsevier.com/tdm/userlicense/1.0/

                https://doi.org/10.15223/policy-017

                https://doi.org/10.15223/policy-037

                https://doi.org/10.15223/policy-012

                https://doi.org/10.15223/policy-029

                https://doi.org/10.15223/policy-004

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