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      Targeting Extracellular miR-21-TLR7 Signaling Provides Long-Lasting Analgesia in Osteoarthritis

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          Abstract

          Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most prevalent joint disorder associated with severe chronic pain. Although synovial inflammation is well correlated with pain severity, the molecular mechanism responsible for OA pain remains unclear. Here, we show that extracellular miR-21 released from synovial tissue mediates knee OA pain in surgical OA model rats. miR-21 was the most abundant among increased microRNAs (miRNAs) in the synovial tissue. miR-21 was released into extracellular space from the synovial tissue and increased in the synovial fluid. A single intra-articular injection of miR-21 inhibitor exerted long-term analgesia of knee OA pain, whereas miR-21 injection in naive rats caused knee joint pain. miR-21 mutant, which lacks the Toll-like receptor (TLR) binding motif, but not in the seed sequence, did not cause joint pain, suggesting a non-canonical mode of action different from translational repression. Consistent with this, the algesic effect of miR-21 was blocked by antagonizing TLR7. The TLR7 antagonist also exerted a long-lasting analgesic effect on knee OA pain. Therefore, extracellular miR-21 released from synovial tissue mediates knee OA pain through TLR7 activation in surgical OA model rats. Extracellular miRNA in the joint may be a plausible target for pain therapy, providing a novel analgesic strategy for OA.

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          Most cited references 40

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          Ethical guidelines for investigations of experimental pain in conscious animals.

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            Fibroblast-like synoviocytes: key effector cells in rheumatoid arthritis.

            Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) remains a significant unmet medical need despite significant therapeutic advances. The pathogenesis of RA is complex and includes many cell types, including T cells, B cells, and macrophages. Fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) in the synovial intimal lining also play a key role by producing cytokines that perpetuate inflammation and proteases that contribute to cartilage destruction. Rheumatoid FLS develop a unique aggressive phenotype that increases invasiveness into the extracellular matrix and further exacerbates joint damage. Recent advances in understanding the biology of FLS, including their regulation regulate innate immune responses and activation of intracellular signaling mechanisms that control their behavior, provide novel insights into disease mechanisms. New agents that target FLS could potentially complement the current therapies without major deleterious effect on adaptive immune responses.
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              Nucleic acids of mammalian origin can act as endogenous ligands for Toll-like receptors and may promote systemic lupus erythematosus

              Raised serum levels of interferon (IFN)-α have been observed in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients, and these levels are correlated with both disease activity and severity. The origin of this IFN-α is still unclear, but increasing evidence suggests the critical involvement of activated plasmacytoid predendritic cells (PDCs). In SLE patients, DNA and RNA viruses, as well as immune complexes (ICs), that consist of autoantibodies specific to self-DNA and RNA protein particles can stimulate production of IFN-α. We have developed three series of oligonucleotide (ODN)-based inhibitors of Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling. These ODNs include inhibitors of TLR9, inhibitors of TLR7 but not TLR9, and sequences that inhibit both TLR7 and TLR9. Specificity of these inhibitors is confirmed by inhibition of IFN-α production by PDCs in response to DNA or RNA viruses. We show that mammalian DNA and RNA, in the form of ICs, are potent self-antigens for TLR9 and TLR7, respectively, and induce IFN-α production by PDCs. This work suggests that TLRs may have a critical role in the promotion of lupus through the induction of IFN-α by PDCs. These inhibitors of TLR signaling thus represent novel therapeutic agents with potential for the treatment of lupus.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Mol Ther Nucleic Acids
                Mol Ther Nucleic Acids
                Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
                American Society of Gene & Cell Therapy
                2162-2531
                20 November 2019
                06 March 2020
                20 November 2019
                : 19
                : 199-207
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Pharmacology, Graduate School of Medicine, Nippon Medical School, 1-1-5 Sendagi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8602, Japan
                [2 ]Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Nippon Medical School, 1-1-5 Sendagi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8602, Japan
                Author notes
                []Corresponding author: Atsushi Sakai, Department of Pharmacology, Graduate School of Medicine, Nippon Medical School, 1-1-5 Sendagi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8602, Japan. sa19@ 123456nms.ac.jp
                Article
                S2162-2531(19)30364-6
                10.1016/j.omtn.2019.11.011
                6920297
                31841992
                © 2019 The Author(s)

                This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

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