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Functions of Positive Emotions: Gratitude as a Motivator of Self-Improvement and Positive Change

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Emotion Review

SAGE Publications

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      Most cited references 59

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      Subjective well-being: Three decades of progress.

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        On happiness and human potentials: a review of research on hedonic and eudaimonic well-being.

         R Ryan,  E Deci (2000)
        Well-being is a complex construct that concerns optimal experience and functioning. Current research on well-being has been derived from two general perspectives: the hedonic approach, which focuses on happiness and defines well-being in terms of pleasure attainment and pain avoidance; and the eudaimonic approach, which focuses on meaning and self-realization and defines well-being in terms of the degree to which a person is fully functioning. These two views have given rise to different research foci and a body of knowledge that is in some areas divergent and in others complementary. New methodological developments concerning multilevel modeling and construct comparisons are also allowing researchers to formulate new questions for the field. This review considers research from both perspectives concerning the nature of well-being, its antecedents, and its stability across time and culture.
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          The benefits of frequent positive affect: does happiness lead to success?

          Numerous studies show that happy individuals are successful across multiple life domains, including marriage, friendship, income, work performance, and health. The authors suggest a conceptual model to account for these findings, arguing that the happiness-success link exists not only because success makes people happy, but also because positive affect engenders success. Three classes of evidence--crosssectional, longitudinal, and experimental--are documented to test their model. Relevant studies are described and their effect sizes combined meta-analytically. The results reveal that happiness is associated with and precedes numerous successful outcomes, as well as behaviors paralleling success. Furthermore, the evidence suggests that positive affect--the hallmark of well-being--may be the cause of many of the desirable characteristics, resources, and successes correlated with happiness. Limitations, empirical issues, and important future research questions are discussed.
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            Author and article information

            Journal
            Emotion Review
            Emotion Review
            SAGE Publications
            1754-0739
            1754-0747
            June 15 2017
            June 15 2017
            : 9
            : 3
            : 183-190
            10.1177/1754073916669596
            © 2017

            http://journals.sagepub.com/page/policies/text-and-data-mining-license

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