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      Accurate detection of Campylobacter spp. antigens by immunochromatography and enzyme immunoassay in routine microbiological laboratory

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          Campylobacter spp. are fastidious microorganisms, and their detection by culture depends on the freshness of the stool sample and the skills of the laboratory staff. To improve laboratory diagnosis, assays for the detection of specific antigens have been developed. Here, we evaluated two assays for the detection of Campylobacter spp.-specific antigens, i.e., one immunochromatographic test and one enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (EIA), in 38 frozen Campylobacter spp.-positive specimens and prospectively in 533 fresh stool samples with a conventional enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and culture.

          Both assays were positive for 36 samples with Campylobacter jejuni and one with Campylobacter coli among 38 Campylobacter spp.-positive frozen samples. One Campylobacter lari-positive sample was identified by the immunochromatographic assay (ICA) only. In a prospective study performed within the course of routine microbiology, both assays were positive for 24/25 C. jejuni culture-positive samples (positive percent agreement, 96.0% [95% CI: 78.9–100%]). ICA and EIA also were positive for 14 and 10 culture-negative samples, respectively (negative percent agreement: ICA, 97.2% [95% CI: 95.4–98.4%]; EIA, 98.0% [95% CI: 96.4–99.0%]). In conclusion, the high agreement between both antigen-detection assays and culture indicates that both assays may be initially performed followed by culture only upon a positive test result.

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          Species within the genus, Campylobacter, have emerged over the last three decades as significant clinical pathogens, particularly of human public health concern, where the majority of acute bacterial enteritis in the Western world is due to these organisms. Of particular concern are the species, C. jejuni and C. coli, which are responsible for most of these gastrointestinal-related infections. Although these organisms have already emerged as causative agents of zoonoses, several aspects of their epidemiology and pathophysiology are only beginning to emerge. Trends in increasing antibiotic resistance are beginning to emerge with oral antibiotics, which may be the drug of choice for when it is necessary to intervene chemotherapeutically. This review wishes to examine (i) emerging clinical aspects of the disease, such as Guillain Barre syndrome (GBS), (ii) the association between these organisms and poultry as a natural host, (iii) environmental aspects of Campylobacter epidemiology, (iv) the emergence of atypical campylobacters (v) emerging trends in antibiotic resistance, (vi) adoption of modern methods for the detection of campylobacters.
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            PCR detection, identification to species level, and fingerprinting of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli direct from diarrheic samples.

            Three sets of primers were designed for PCR detection and differentiation of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. The first PCR assay was designed to coidentify C. jejuni and C. coli based on their 16S rRNA gene sequences. The second PCR assay, based on the hippuricase gene sequence, identified all tested reference strains of C. jejuni and also strains of that species which lack detectable hippuricase activity. The third PCR assay, based on the sequence of a cloned (putative) aspartokinase gene and the downstream open reading frame, identified all tested reference strains of C. coli. The assays will find immediate application in the rapid identification to species level of isolates. The assays combine with a protocol for purification of total DNA from fecal samples to allow reproducible PCR identification of campylobacters directly from stools. Of 20 clinical samples from which campylobacters had been cultured, we detected C. jejuni in 17, C. coli in 2, and coinfection of C. jejuni and Campylobacter hyointestinalis in 1. These results were concordant with culture and phenotypic identification to species level. Strain typing by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism of the flagellin (flaA) gene detected identical flaA types in fecal DNA and the corresponding campylobacter isolate. Twenty-five Campylobacter-negative stool samples gave no reaction with the PCR assays. These PCR assays can rapidly define the occurrence, species incidence, and flaA genotypes of enteropathogenic campylobacters.
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              New methods for detection of campylobacters in stool samples in comparison to culture.

              Campylobacter species, especially Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, are a major cause of human bacterial enteritis. Current detection in stools is done essentially by culture on selective and nonselective media with filtration. These methods were compared to 2 molecular biology methods, an in-house real-time PCR and a multiplex PCR named Seeplex Diarrhea ACE Detection, and 3 immunoenzymatic methods, Premier Campy, RidaScreen Campylobacter, and ImmunoCard Stat!Campy. Out of 242 stool specimens tested, 23 (9.5%) fulfilled the positivity criteria, i.e., they were positive by one or both culture methods or, in case of a negative culture, by a positive molecular method and a positive immunoenzymatic method. The striking feature of this study is the low sensitivity of culture, in the range of 60%, in contrast to immunoenzymatic and molecular tests.

                Author and article information

                European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
                Akadémiai Kiadó, co-published with Springer Science+Business Media B.V., Formerly Kluwer Academic Publishers B.V.
                1 September 2014
                : 4
                : 3
                : 156-158
                [ 1 ] Laboratory Enders & Partners, Rosenbergstr. 85, 70193, Stuttgart, Germany
                [ 2 ] Department of Microbiology and Hygiene, Charite — Universitätsmedizin Berlin, 13353, Berlin, Germany
                Author notes
                Original Article

                Medicine,Immunology,Health & Social care,Microbiology & Virology,Infectious disease & Microbiology
                enzyme immunoassay, Campylobacter ,antigen detection,culture,immunochromatographic assay


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