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      Role of intraoperative PTH monitoring and surgical approach in primary hyperparathyroidism

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          Abstract

          Aims

          The use of intraoperative PTH monitoring (IOPTH) in combination with preoperative imaging has been useful to surgeons performing minimally invasive parathyroidectomy principally for adequacy of excision. However, its role within patients with equivocal imaging remains less clear particularly regarding the reduction of bilateral neck explorations. This study investigated the influence of IOPTH monitoring on the type of surgical approach adopted for patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). Specifically, determining its impact amongst patients with equivocal imaging results.

          Methods

          165 patients undergoing parathyroidectomy for PHPT at a single institution by a single surgeon, between 2008 and 2012, were included. Patients were divided into 2 groups, IOPTH monitoring and non-IOPTH monitoring. They were sub-classified according to their imaging strengths: strongly positive, equivocal and negative imaging. The percentages of patients undergoing focused, unilateral and bilateral operations were determined.

          Results

          108 patients had IOPTH monitoring and 57 patients did not based on the availability of IOPTH monitoring. Patients with strongly positive imaging had a higher frequency of focused operation in both groups; IOPTH 73.4% and non-IOPTH 71.4%. Patients with negative imaging results had a higher frequency of bilateral operations; IOPTH 77.8% and non-IOPTH 72.7%. In patients with equivocal imaging results more focused/unilateral operations were performed with IOPTH monitoring 66.6% versus non-IOPTH 25%. The use of intraoperative PTH increased the likelihood of a unilateral procedure with equivocal imaging compared to those with negative imaging p = 0.04.

          Conclusion

          IOPTH monitoring is most useful as an adjunct to preoperative imaging when imaging results are equivocal allowing for more focused/unilateral operations to be performed.

          Highlights

          • IOPTH monitoring confirmed cure during surgery.

          • It influenced the surgical approach taken in those with equivocal imaging results.

          • This determined extent of surgical treatment required to be considered optimum.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 15

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          Rapid intraoperative immunoassay of parathyroid hormone and other hormones: a new paradigm for point-of-care testing.

          The first description of the use of a rapid assay for the measurement of intact parathyroid hormone (PTH) in patients undergoing parathyroidectomy for hyperparathyroidism was reported in 1988. Subsequent improvements in the analytical performance of the rapid intraoperative PTH assay allowed the establishment of its clinical utility in the surgical management of hyperparathyroidism. These modifications also allowed the assay to be performed in or near the operating suite. We searched MEDLINE, using the following key words: intraoperative, rapid, quick, parathyroid hormone, hormone, and immunoassay. Relevant articles that focused on the analytical aspects and clinical utility of rapid intraoperative hormone immunoassays were selected for this review. On the basis of the positive impact that the rapid intraoperative PTH test has had on both patient outcomes and cost savings, other rapid intraoperative hormone immunoassays for the diagnosis and/or treatment of other endocrine-hormone-secreting tumors have been developed. These hormones share certain characteristics that make them suitable for use as rapid intraoperative tests, i.e., short analyte half-life and/or large analyte concentration gradient, rapid analysis time, and positive clinical utility. Initial studies with cortisol, gastrin, insulin, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and testosterone have shown promising results in preoperative localization studies and/or for assessing the effectiveness of tumor resection during surgery. The emergence of these rapid intraoperative immunoassays indicates that this test format is likely to provide future opportunities to improve patient care by advances in clinical laboratory testing.
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            Negative preoperative localization studies are highly predictive of multiglandular disease in sporadic primary hyperparathyroidism.

            The development of localization studies and quick parathyroid hormone assay (QPTH) has allowed the development of focused surgery in sporadic primary hyperparathyroidism. The aim of this investigation was to determine whether localization studies select a specific population of patients. From 1999 to 2001, 213 patients underwent surgery for sporadic primary hyperparathyroidism. All were investigated with sestamibi scanning and ultrasonography. When at least 1 study showed a positive result (n=175), the patient underwent a video-assisted approach with QPTH. When results were negative (n=38), the patient underwent cervicotomy and exploratory procedures of all 4 parathyroid glands. All patients are cured (mean follow-up, 17.8+/-10.3 months [SD]). Patients with negative preoperative study results had a high risk of multiglandular disease (12/38 patients; 31,6%), compared with patients with 1 positive study result (3/83 patients; 3.6%; P<.0001) and those with 2 concordant positive study results (0/92 patients; P<.0001). When preoperative localization study results are negative, the patient has a high risk of multiglandular disease, and a conventional cervicotomy with identification of the 4 glands is recommended strongly. When only 1 localization study is positive, the risk of multiglandular disease justifies the use of QPTH during a focused approach. When positive localization study results are concordant, the use of QPTH is questionable during a focused approach.
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              Role of intraoperative parathormone monitoring during parathyroidectomy in patients with discordant localization studies.

              Many patients with sporadic primary hyperparathyroidism (SPHPT) have discordant preoperative Tc-99m-sestamibi (MIBI) and ultrasonography studies prior to focused parathyroidectomy (PTX). This study examines the usefulness of intraoperative parathormone monitoring (IPM) during PTX in patients with discordant preoperative localization studies. A retrospective series of 225 consecutive SPHPT patients with MIBI scans and surgeon performed ultrasonography (SUS) prior to focused parathyroidectomy were studied. All patient operations were reviewed, and how IPM changed operative management was determined. Correct gland localization, presence of multigland disease (MGD), and operative outcome were also examined. In 225 patients, overall operative success was 97%, and IPM changed operative management in 29% of patients. In 85 patients (38%) with discordant studies, operative success was 93%; IPM changed operative management in 74% of these patients. IPM allowed for 66% (56/85) of these operations to be performed as unilateral neck exploration and confirmed removal of abnormal glands in 7 patients with MGD. In 140 patients (62%) with concordant localization, in which operative success was 99%, IPM changed operative management in only 2% (3/140) of these patients with MGD. Although of marginal benefit in patients with concordant imaging studies, IPM remains essential for performing successful PTX with discordant or incorrect concordant localization.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Ann Med Surg (Lond)
                Ann Med Surg (Lond)
                Annals of Medicine and Surgery
                Elsevier
                2049-0801
                28 August 2015
                September 2015
                28 August 2015
                : 4
                : 3
                : 301-305
                Affiliations
                Department Endocrine Surgery, Guys and St Thomas' Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK
                Author notes
                []Corresponding author. St Thomas' Hospital, London, UK. asuri2013@ 123456doctors.org.uk aak2013@ 123456hotmail.co.uk
                Article
                S2049-0801(15)00084-9
                10.1016/j.amsu.2015.08.007
                4556812
                © 2015 The Authors

                This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

                Categories
                Original Research

                intraoperative pth monitoring

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