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      In Vivo Assessment of Bone Quality in Postmenopausal Women With Type 2 Diabetes : BONE QUALITY IN WOMEN WITH T2D

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          Abstract

          Although patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) are at significant risk for well-recognized diabetic complications, including macrovascular disease, retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy, it is also clear that T2D patients are at increased risk for fragility fractures. Furthermore, fragility fractures in patients with T2D occur at higher bone mineral density (BMD) values compared to nondiabetic controls, suggesting abnormalities in bone material strength (BMS) and/or bone microarchitecture (bone "quality"). Thus, we performed in vivo microindentation testing of the tibia to directly measure BMS in 60 postmenopausal women (age range, 50-80 years) including 30 patients diagnosed with T2D for >10 years and 30 age-matched, nondiabetic controls. Regional BMD was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA); cortical and trabecular bone microarchitecture was assessed from high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HRpQCT) images of the distal radius and tibia. Compared to controls, T2D patients had significantly lower BMS: unadjusted (-11.7%; p<0.001); following adjustment for body mass index (BMI) (-10.5%; p<0.001); and following additional adjustment for age, hypertension, nephropathy, neuropathy, retinopathy, and vascular disease (-9.2%; p=0.022). By contrast, after adjustment for confounding by BMI, T2D patients had bone microarchitecture and BMD that were not significantly different than controls; however, radial cortical porosity tended to be higher in the T2D patients. In addition, patients with T2D had significantly reduced serum markers of bone turnover (all p<0.001) compared to controls. Of note, in patients with T2D, the average glycated hemoglobin level over the previous 10 years was negatively correlated with BMS (r=-0.41; p=0.026). In conclusion, these findings represent the first demonstration of compromised BMS in patients with T2D. Furthermore, our results confirm previous studies demonstrating low bone turnover in patients with T2D and highlight the potential detrimental effects of prolonged hyperglycemia on bone quality. Thus, the skeleton needs to be recognized as another important target tissue subject to diabetic complications. © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

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          Most cited references 35

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          From estrogen-centric to aging and oxidative stress: a revised perspective of the pathogenesis of osteoporosis.

          Estrogen deficiency has been considered the seminal mechanism of osteoporosis in both women and men, but epidemiological evidence in humans and recent mechanistic studies in rodents indicate that aging and the associated increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) are the proximal culprits. ROS greatly influence the generation and survival of osteoclasts, osteoblasts, and osteocytes. Moreover, oxidative defense by the FoxO transcription factors is indispensable for skeletal homeostasis at any age. Loss of estrogens or androgens decreases defense against oxidative stress in bone, and this accounts for the increased bone resorption associated with the acute loss of these hormones. ROS-activated FoxOs in early mesenchymal progenitors also divert ss-catenin away from Wnt signaling, leading to decreased osteoblastogenesis. This latter mechanism may be implicated in the pathogenesis of type 1 and 2 diabetes and ROS-mediated adverse effects of diabetes on bone formation. Attenuation of Wnt signaling by the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma by ligands generated from lipid oxidation also contributes to the age-dependent decrease in bone formation, suggesting a mechanistic explanation for the link between atherosclerosis and osteoporosis. Additionally, increased glucocorticoid production and sensitivity with advancing age decrease skeletal hydration and thereby increase skeletal fragility by attenuating the volume of the bone vasculature and interstitial fluid. This emerging evidence provides a paradigm shift from the "estrogen-centric" account of the pathogenesis of involutional osteoporosis to one in which age-related mechanisms intrinsic to bone and oxidative stress are protagonists and age-related changes in other organs and tissues, such as ovaries, accentuate them.
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            History of the Rochester Epidemiology Project: half a century of medical records linkage in a US population.

             Walter A Rocca (corresponding) ,  Barbara P. Yawn,  Jennifer St. Sauver (2012)
            The Rochester Epidemiology Project (REP) has maintained a comprehensive medical records linkage system for nearly half a century for almost all persons residing in Olmsted County, Minnesota. Herein, we provide a brief history of the REP before and after 1966, the year in which the REP was officially established. The key protagonists before 1966 were Henry Plummer, Mabel Root, and Joseph Berkson, who developed a medical records linkage system at Mayo Clinic. In 1966, Leonard Kurland established collaborative agreements with other local health care providers (hospitals, physician groups, and clinics [primarily Olmsted Medical Center]) to develop a medical records linkage system that covered the entire population of Olmsted County, and he obtained funding from the National Institutes of Health to support the new system. In 1997, L. Joseph Melton III addressed emerging concerns about the confidentiality of medical record information by introducing a broad patient research authorization as per Minnesota state law. We describe how the key protagonists of the REP have responded to challenges posed by evolving medical knowledge, information technology, and public expectation and policy. In addition, we provide a general description of the system; discuss issues of data quality, reliability, and validity; describe the research team structure; provide information about funding; and compare the REP with other medical information systems. The REP can serve as a model for the development of similar research infrastructures in the United States and worldwide. Copyright © 2012 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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              Association of BMD and FRAX score with risk of fracture in older adults with type 2 diabetes.

              Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with higher bone mineral density (BMD) and paradoxically with increased fracture risk. It is not known if low BMD, central to fracture prediction in older adults, identifies fracture risk in patients with DM. To determine if femoral neck BMD T score and the World Health Organization Fracture Risk Algorithm (FRAX) score are associated with hip and nonspine fracture risk in older adults with type 2 DM. Data from 3 prospective observational studies with adjudicated fracture outcomes (Study of Osteoporotic Fractures [December 1998-July 2008]; Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Study [March 2000-March 2009]; and Health, Aging, and Body Composition study [April 1997-June 2007]) were analyzed in older community-dwelling adults (9449 women and 7436 men) in the United States. Self-reported incident fractures, which were verified by radiology reports. Of 770 women with DM, 84 experienced a hip fracture and 262 a nonspine fracture during a mean (SD) follow-up of 12.6 (5.3) years. Of 1199 men with DM, 32 experienced a hip fracture and 133 a nonspine fracture during a mean (SD) follow-up of 7.5 (2.0) years. Age-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for 1-unit decrease in femoral neck BMD T score in women with DM were 1.88 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.43-2.48) for hip fracture and 1.52 (95% CI, 1.31-1.75) for nonspine fracture, and in men with DM were 5.71 (95% CI, 3.42-9.53) for hip fracture and 2.17 (95% CI, 1.75-2.69) for nonspine fracture. The FRAX score was also associated with fracture risk in participants with DM (HRs for 1-unit increase in FRAX hip fracture score, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.03-1.07, for women with DM and 1.16; 95% CI, 1.07-1.27, for men with DM; HRs for 1-unit increase in FRAX osteoporotic fracture score, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.02-1.05, for women with DM and 1.09; 95% CI, 1.04-1.14, for men with DM). However, for a given T score and age or for a given FRAX score, participants with DM had a higher fracture risk than those without DM. For a similar fracture risk, participants with DM had a higher T score than participants without DM. For hip fracture, the estimated mean difference in T score for women was 0.59 (95% CI, 0.31-0.87) and for men was 0.38 (95% CI, 0.09-0.66). Among older adults with type 2 DM, femoral neck BMD T score and FRAX score were associated with hip and nonspine fracture risk; however, in these patients compared with participants without DM, the fracture risk was higher for a given T score and age or for a given FRAX score.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Bone and Mineral Research
                J Bone Miner Res
                Wiley
                08840431
                April 2014
                April 2014
                March 19 2014
                : 29
                : 4
                : 787-795
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology; Mayo Clinic College of Medicine; Rochester MN USA
                [2 ]Department of Medicine, Division of Rheumatology; Mayo Clinic College of Medicine; Rochester MN USA
                [3 ]Department of Health Sciences Research, Division of Epidemiology; Mayo Clinic College of Medicine; Rochester MN USA
                Article
                10.1002/jbmr.2106
                3961509
                24123088
                © 2014
                Product
                Self URI (article page): http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/jbmr.2106

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