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      Validation of two Amanita species from eastern North America: A. rhacopus sp. nov. and A. variicolor sp. nov.

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          Abstract

          Members of the mushroom genus Amanita usually can easily be identified to the genus in the field, however, species circumscription and identification are often problematic. Several names have been misapplied and cryptic species exist. Here, we formally describe and validate two new species of Amanita sect. Vaginatae from eastern North America that were recognised under the umbrella European names A. ceciliae by past authors: Amanita rhacopus sp. nov. and Amanita variicolor sp. nov.

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          Rapid and reliable high-throughput methods of DNA extraction for use in barcoding and molecular systematics of mushrooms.

          We present two methods for DNA extraction from fresh and dried mushrooms that are adaptable to high-throughput sequencing initiatives, such as DNA barcoding. Our results show that these protocols yield ∼85% sequencing success from recently collected materials. Tests with both recent ( 100 years) specimens reveal that older collections have low success rates and may be an inefficient resource for populating a barcode database. However, our method of extracting DNA from herbarium samples using small amount of tissue is reliable and could be used for important historical specimens. The application of these protocols greatly reduces time, and therefore cost, of generating DNA sequences from mushrooms and other fungi vs. traditional extraction methods. The efficiency of these methods illustrates that standardization and streamlining of sample processing should be shifted from the laboratory to the field. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
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            Nitrogen availability alters macrofungal basidiomycete community structure in optimally fertilized loblolly pine forests

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              Saproamanita, a new name for both Lepidella E.-J. Gilbert and Aspidella E.-J. Gilbert (Amaniteae, Amanitaceae)

              The genus Amanita has been divided into two monophyletic taxa, Amanita, an ectomycorrhizal genus, and Aspidella, a saprotrophic genus. The controversies and histories about recognition of the two genera based on trophic status are discussed. The name Aspidella E.-J. Gilbert is shown to be illegitimate and a later homonym of Aspidella E. Billings, a well-known generic name for an enigmatic fossil sometimes classified as a fungus or alga. The name Saproamanita is coined to replace Aspidella E.-J. Gilbert for the saprotrophic Amanitas, and a selection of previously molecularly analyzed species and closely classified grassland species are transferred to it along with selected similar taxa. The type illustration for the type species, S. vittadinii, is explained and a subgeneric classification accepting Amanita subgen. Amanitina and subgen. Amanita is proposed. Validation of the family name, Amanitaceae E.-J. Gilbert dating from 1940, rather than by Pouzar in 1983 is explained.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                MycoKeys
                MC
                Pensoft Publishers
                1314-4049
                1314-4057
                August 14 2018
                August 14 2018
                : 38
                : 47-57
                Article
                10.3897/mycokeys.38.27041
                © 2018

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