Despite the progress that has been made in intensive care medicine, multiple organ failure is still associated with high mortality. Apart from the prevention of infectious complications, numerous efforts are being made to improve the treatment of sepsis through adequate antibiotic therapy, the development of new respirator therapies, better control of the hemodynamic situation, and adequate renal replacement therapy. Some authors advocate continuous renal replacement therapy not only for acute renal failure but also for the elimination of inflammatory molecules such as cytokines. Continuous renal replacement therapy improves the cardiovascular hemodynamics in patients with multiple organ failure. Therapeutic options such as volume control, clearance of uremic toxins, correction of acid base disturbances and temperature control are improved. Suitable renal replacement therapy improves not only cardiovascular hemodynamics but also patient survival. In current practice, continuous renal replacement therapy is not used to eliminate mediators such as cytokines. In patients with multiple organ failure and compromised cardiovascular hemodynamics, renal replacement therapy should be carried out as early as possible. In the following review, experimental and clinical findings concerning mediator elimination by continuous and intermittent renal replacement therapy are summarized.