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      The Persian methamphetamine use in methadone treatment in Iran: implication for prevention and treatment in an upper-middle income country

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      DARU Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences

      BioMed Central

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          Abstract

          As the most populated Persian Gulf country in West Asia, methamphetamine use in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) is a new health concern in Iran. Methamphetamine use in MMT can originate in methadone misconceptions or the stimulant effects of methamphetamine use. Several research studies have highlighted the prevalence of methamphetamine use in Iran and conducting further studies on this issue is being developed. Opiate use is treated with MMT. But, there is no effective pharmacological treatment for methamphetamine use and cognitive-behavioral interventions have still remained the best practice. As a psychostimulant drug, methamphetamine use can lead to poor treatment outcomes or even treatment failure among patients in MMT. Therefore, the implementation of methamphetamine education and prevention programs in MMT is required. Prescribing adequate methadone dose and the treatment of comorbidities as well as, doing a series of activities outside treatment is underscored. Methamphetamine use has a chronic nature and methamphetamine treatment is a long-term procedure with a high rate of relapse. Therefore, the implementation of long-term motivational interviewing, teaching necessary skills to prevent relapse and case management is highlighted. A long-term collaboration between treatment teams, patients and their families is suggested to manage methamphetamine use in MMT.

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          Most cited references 12

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          Methamphetamine: an update on epidemiology, pharmacology, clinical phenomenology, and treatment literature.

          Despite initial reports of a decline in use in the early 2000s, methamphetamine remains a significant public health concern with known neurotoxic and neurocognitive effects to the user. The goal of this review is to update the literature on methamphetamine use and addiction since its assent to peak popularity in 1990s.
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            The global epidemiology and burden of psychostimulant dependence: findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010.

            To estimate the global prevalence of cocaine and amphetamine dependence and the burden of disease attributable to these disorders.
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              Crystal in Iran: methamphetamine or heroin kerack

              In recent years, methamphetamine use has dramatically increased in Iran while there is a crucial misunderstanding about the colloquial words related to methamphetamine among health providers, policy makers, clinicians, scholars and people in the community. The word Crystal refers to methamphetamine in some parts of Iran while in some other parts of the country, Crystal refers to a high purity street-level heroin which is called Kerack and its abuse is epidemic. Methamphetamine and heroin Kerack are different drugs in Iran. Methamphetamine is a stimulant drug while heroin Kerack is an opioid. Health providers especially clinicians and emergency medicine specialists should consider colloquial words that Iranian drug users apply. Special training courses should be designed and implemented for clinicians in Iran to inform them about methamphetamine and its frequently used colloquial words in the community. This issue has important clinical and health implications.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                + 98 21 64122319 , Mohammad@TUMS.Ac.Ir
                Journal
                Daru
                Daru
                DARU Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
                BioMed Central (London )
                1560-8115
                2008-2231
                17 November 2015
                17 November 2015
                2015
                : 23
                Affiliations
                [ ]Program of International Research and Training, National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, Faculty of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
                [ ]Department of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
                Article
                134
                10.1186/s40199-015-0134-5
                4650324
                © Alam-mehrjerdi and Abdollahi. 2015

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

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                Editorial
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                © The Author(s) 2015

                Pharmacology & Pharmaceutical medicine

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