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      Cryptosporidiosis in broiler chickens in Zhejiang Province, China: molecular characterization of oocysts detected in fecal samples Translated title: Cryptosporidiose chez les poulets de chair dans la province du Zhejiang, Chine : caractérisation moléculaire des oocystes détectés dans les échantillons fécaux

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          Cryptosporidium is one of the most important parasites in poultry, and this pathogen can infect more than 30 avian species. The present study investigated the infection rate of Cryptosporidium among broiler chicken flocks. A total of 385 fecal samples from broiler chickens in 7 regions of Zhejiang Province collected from November 2010 to January 2012 were examined by microscopy. Thirty-eight (10%) samples were positive for Cryptosporidium infection, and 3 genotypes ( Cryptosporidium baileyi, Cryptosporidium meleagridis, and avian genotype II) were identified by PCR and sequencing. A phylogenetic tree of the isolates was analyzed. These results suggest that cryptosporidiosis is widespread in poultry in Zhejiang Province, and is a potential threat to public health as well as the economy. This is the first report about the infection rate and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium in broiler chickens in Zhejiang.

          Translated abstract

          Cryptosporidium est l’un des parasites les plus importants de la volaille, et cet agent pathogène peut infecter plus de 30 espèces aviaires. La présente étude a examiné le taux d’infection de Cryptosporidium chez les poulets de chair. Un total de 385 échantillons fécaux de poulets de chair dans 7 régions de la province du Zhejiang, recueillis de novembre 2010 à janvier 2012, ont été examinés par microscopie. Trente-huit (10 %) étaient positifs pour l’infection à Cryptosporidium, et 3 génotypes ( Cryptosporidium baileyi, Cryptosporidium meleagridis, génotype aviaire II) ont été identifiés par PCR et séquençage. Un arbre phylogénétique des isolats a été analysé. Ces résultats suggèrent que la cryptosporidiose est répandue chez les volailles dans la province du Zhejiang, et est une menace potentielle pour la santé publique ainsi que l’économie. Ceci est le premier rapport sur le taux d’infection et la caractérisation moléculaire de Cryptosporidium dans les poulets de chair dans le Zhejiang.

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          Most cited references 28

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          Waterborne transmission of protozoan parasites: a worldwide review of outbreaks and lessons learnt.

          At least 325 water-associated outbreaks of parasitic protozoan disease have been reported. North American and European outbreaks accounted for 93% of all reports and nearly two-thirds of outbreaks occurred in North America. Over 30% of all outbreaks were documented from Europe, with the UK accounting for 24% of outbreaks, worldwide. Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium parvum account for the majority of outbreaks (132; 40.6% and 165; 50.8%, respectively), Entamoeba histolytica and Cyclospora cayetanensis have been the aetiological agents in nine (2.8%) and six (1.8%) outbreaks, respectively, while Toxoplasma gondii and Isospora belli have been responsible for three outbreaks each (0.9%) and Blastocystis hominis for two outbreaks (0.6%). Balantidium coli, the microsporidia, Acanthamoeba and Naegleria fowleri were responsible for one outbreak, each (0.3%). Their presence in aquatic ecosystems makes it imperative to develop prevention strategies for water and food safety. Human incidence and prevalence-based studies provide baseline data against which risk factors associated with waterborne and foodborne transmission can be identified. Standardized methods are required to maximize public health surveillance, while reporting lessons learned from outbreaks will provide better insight into the public health impact of waterborne pathogenic protozoa.
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            Taxonomy and species delimitation in Cryptosporidium.

             Ronald Fayer (2010)
            Amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals serve as hosts for 19 species of Cryptosporidium. All 19 species have been confirmed by morphological, biological, and molecular data. Fish serve as hosts for three additional species, all of which lack supporting molecular data. In addition to the named species, gene sequence data from more than 40 isolates from various vertebrate hosts are reported in the scientific literature or are listed in GenBank. These isolates lack taxonomic status and are referred to as genotypes based on the host of origin. Undoubtedly, some will eventually be recognized as species. For them to receive taxonomic status sufficient morphological, biological, and molecular data are required and names must comply with the rules of the International Code for Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN). Because the ICZN rules may be interpreted differently by persons proposing names, original names might be improperly assigned, original literature might be overlooked, or new scientific methods might be applicable to determining taxonomic status, the names of species and higher taxa are not immutable. The rapidly evolving taxonomic status of Cryptosporidium sp. reflects these considerations. Published by Elsevier Inc.
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              Cryptosporidium taxonomy: recent advances and implications for public health.

              There has been an explosion of descriptions of new species of Cryptosporidium during the last two decades. This has been accompanied by confusion regarding the criteria for species designation, largely because of the lack of distinct morphologic differences and strict host specificity among Cryptosporidium spp. A review of the biologic species concept, the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN), and current practices for Cryptosporidium species designation calls for the establishment of guidelines for naming Cryptosporidium species. All reports of new Cryptosporidium species should include at least four basic components: oocyst morphology, natural host specificity, genetic characterizations, and compliance with the ICZN. Altogether, 13 Cryptosporidium spp. are currently recognized: C. muris, C. andersoni, C. parvum, C. hominis, C. wrairi, C. felis, and C. cannis in mammals; C. baïleyi, C. meleagridis, and C. galli in birds; C. serpentis and C. saurophilum in reptiles; and C. molnari in fish. With the establishment of a framework for naming Cryptosporidium species and the availability of new taxonomic tools, there should be less confusion associated with the taxonomy of the genus Cryptosporidium. The clarification of Cryptosporidium taxonomy is also useful for understanding the biology of Cryptosporidium spp., assessing the public health significance of Cryptosporidium spp. in animals and the environment, characterizing transmission dynamics, and tracking infection and contamination sources.

                Author and article information

                EDP Sciences
                31 July 2014
                : 21
                : ( publisher-idID: parasite/2014/01 )
                [1 ] Institute of Preventive Veterinary Medicine, College of Animal Sciences, Zhejiang University Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310058 PR China
                [2 ] Hangzhou College of Commerce, Zhejiang Gongshang University Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310012 PR China
                [3 ] Faculty of Life Science and Technology, Ningbo University Ningbo, Zhejiang 315211 PR China
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: afdu@ 123456zju.edu.cn
                parasite130108 10.1051/parasite/2014035
                © L. Wang et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2014

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 1, Equations: 0, References: 32, Pages: 5
                Research Article

                cryptosporidium, infection rate, china, chicken, epidemiology


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