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      Fiber-Embedded Metallic Materials: From Sensing towards Nervous Behavior

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          Abstract

          Embedding of fibers in materials has attracted serious attention from researchers and has become a new research trend. Such material structures are usually termed “smart” or more recently “nervous”. Materials can have the capability of sensing and responding to the surrounding environmental stimulus, in the former, and the capability of feeling multiple structural and external stimuli, while feeding information back to a controller for appropriate real-time action, in the latter. In this paper, embeddable fibers, embedding processes, and behavior of fiber-embedded metallic materials are reviewed. Particular emphasis has been given to embedding fiber Bragg grating (FBG) array sensors and piezo wires, because of their high potential to be used in nervous materials for structural health monitoring. Ultrasonic consolidation and laser-based layered manufacturing processes are discussed in detail because of their high potential to integrate fibers without disruption. In addition, current challenges associated with embedding fibers in metallic materials are highlighted and recommendations for future research work are set.

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          Fiber grating sensors

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            A review of shape memory alloy research, applications and opportunities

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              Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors toward Structural Health Monitoring in Composite Materials: Challenges and Solutions

              Nowadays, smart composite materials embed miniaturized sensors for structural health monitoring (SHM) in order to mitigate the risk of failure due to an overload or to unwanted inhomogeneity resulting from the fabrication process. Optical fiber sensors, and more particularly fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors, outperform traditional sensor technologies, as they are lightweight, small in size and offer convenient multiplexing capabilities with remote operation. They have thus been extensively associated to composite materials to study their behavior for further SHM purposes. This paper reviews the main challenges arising from the use of FBGs in composite materials. The focus will be made on issues related to temperature-strain discrimination, demodulation of the amplitude spectrum during and after the curing process as well as connection between the embedded optical fibers and the surroundings. The main strategies developed in each of these three topics will be summarized and compared, demonstrating the large progress that has been made in this field in the past few years.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Academic Editor
                Journal
                Materials (Basel)
                Materials (Basel)
                materials
                Materials
                MDPI
                1996-1944
                24 November 2015
                November 2015
                : 8
                : 11
                : 7938-7961
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Mechanical Engineering Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia; smekid@ 123456kfupm.edu.sa
                [2 ]Center of Research Excellence in Nanotechnology, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: nouari@ 123456kfupm.edu.sa ; Tel.: +966-13-860-7529; Fax: +966-13-860-2949
                Article
                materials-08-05435
                10.3390/ma8115435
                5458883
                © 2015 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons by Attribution (CC-BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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