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      Porous cobalt-based thin film as a bifunctional catalyst for hydrogen generation and oxygen generation.

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          A mixed-phased Co-based catalyst composed of Co phosphide and Co phosphate is successfully fabricated for bifunctional water electrolysis. The highly porous morphology in this anodized film enables efficient catalytic activity toward water splitting in an extremely low loading mass. The mixed phases in the porous film afford an ability to generate both H2 and O2 in a single electrolyzer.

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          Most cited references 24

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          Enhanced Catalytic Activity in Strained Chemically Exfoliated WS2 Nanosheets for Hydrogen Evolution

          The ability to efficiently evolve hydrogen via electrocatalysis at low overpotentials holds tremendous promise for clean energy. Hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) can be easily achieved from water if a voltage above the thermodynamic potential of the HER is applied. Large overpotentials are energetically inefficient but can be lowered with expensive platinum based catalysts. Replacement of Pt with inexpensive, earth abundant electrocatalysts would be significantly beneficial for clean and efficient hydrogen evolution. Towards this end, promising HER characteristics have been reported using 2H (trigonal prismatic) XS2 (where X = Mo or W) nanoparticles with a high concentration of metallic edges as electrocatalysts. The key challenges for HER with XS2 are increasing the number and catalytic activity of active sites. Here we report atomically thin nanosheets of chemically exfoliated WS2 as efficient catalysts for hydrogen evolution with very low overpotentials. Atomic-resolution transmission electron microscopy and spectroscopy analyses indicate that enhanced electrocatalytic activity of WS2 is associated with high concentration of strained metallic 1T (octahedral) phase in the as-exfoliated nanosheets. Density functional theory calculations reveal that the presence of strain in the 1T phase leads to an enhancement of the density of states at the Fermi level and increases the catalytic activity of the WS2 nanosheet. Our results suggest that chemically exfoliated WS2 nanosheets could be interesting catalysts for hydrogen evolution.
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            Photosynthetic energy conversion: natural and artificial.

             James Barber (2008)
            Photosystem II (PSII) is the water splitting enzyme of photosynthesis. Its appearance during evolution dramatically changed the chemical composition of our planet and set in motion an unprecedented explosion in biological activity. Powered by sunlight, PSII supplies biology with the 'hydrogen' needed to convert carbon dioxide into organic molecules. The questions now are can we continue to exploit this photosynthetic process through increased use of biomass as an energy source and, more importantly, can we address the energy/CO2 problem by developing new photochemical technologies which mimic the natural system? (Critical review, 82 references).
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              Molybdenum boride and carbide catalyze hydrogen evolution in both acidic and basic solutions.

               Heron Vrubel,  Xile Hu (2012)

                Author and article information

                Adv. Mater. Weinheim
                Advanced materials (Deerfield Beach, Fla.)
                May 27 2015
                : 27
                : 20
                [1 ] Department of Chemistry, Rice University, 6100 Main Street, Houston, TX, 77005, USA.
                [2 ] Smalley Institute for Nanoscale Science and Technology, Rice University, 6100 Main Street, Houston, TX, 77005, USA.
                [3 ] Department of Materials Science and NanoEngineering, Rice University, 6100 Main Street, Houston, TX, 77005, USA.

                water splitting, catalysts, thin films, porous, cobalt


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