The epidemiology of HIV-related oral disease in industrialized nations has evolved following the initial manifestations described in 1982. Studies from both the Americas and Europe report a decreased frequency of HIV-related oral manifestations of 10-50% following the introduction of HAART (highly active antiretroviral therapy). Evidence suggests that HAART plays an important role in controlling the occurrence of oral candidosis. The effect of HAART on reducing the incidence of oral lesions, other than oral candidosis, does not appear as significant, possibly as a result of low lesion prevalence in industrialized countries. In contrast to other oral manifestations of HIV, an increased prevalence of oral warts in patients on HAART has been reported from the USA and the UK. HIV-related salivary gland disease may show a trend of rising prevalence in the USA and Europe. The re-emergence of HIV-related oral disease may be indicative of failing therapy. A range of orofacial iatrogenic consequences of HAART has been reported, and it is often difficult to distinguish between true HIV-related oral disease manifestations and the adverse effects of HAART. A possible association between an increased risk of oral squamous cell carcinoma and HIV infection has been suggested by at least three epidemiological studies, with reference to the lip and tongue. These substantial and intensive research efforts directed toward enhancing knowledge regarding the orofacial consequences of HIV infection in the industrialized nations require dissemination in the wider health care environment.