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      Occurrence and clinical characteristics of Compulsive Sexual Behavior Disorder (CSBD): A cluster analysis in two independent community samples


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          Background and aims

          Compulsive Sexual Behavior Disorder (CSBD) is characterized by a persistent failure to control intense and recurrent sexual impulses, urges, and/or thoughts, resulting in repetitive sexual behavior that causes a marked impairment in important areas of functioning. Despite its recent inclusion in the forthcoming ICD-11, concerns regarding its assessment, diagnosis, prevalence or clinical characteristics remain. The purpose of this study was to identify participants displaying CSBD through a novel data-driven approach in two independent samples and outline their sociodemographic, sexual, and clinical profile.


          Sample 1 included 1,581 university students (females = 56.9%; M age = 20.58) whereas sample 2 comprised 1,318 community members (females = 43.6%; M age = 32.37). First, we developed a new composite index to assess the whole range of CSBD symptoms based on three previously validated scales. Based on this new composite index, we subsequently identified individuals with CSBD through a cluster analytic approach.


          The estimated occurrence of CSBD was 10.12% in sample 1 and 7.81% in sample 2. Participants with CSBD were mostly heterosexual males, younger than respondents without CSBD, reported higher levels of sexual sensation seeking and erotophilia, an increased offline and especially online sexual activity, more depressive and anxious symptoms, and poorer self-esteem.


          This research provides further evidence on the occurrence of CSBD based on an alternative data-driven approach, as well as a detailed and nuanced description of the sociodemographic, sexual, and clinical profile of adults with this condition. Clinical implications derived from these findings are discussed in detail.

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          Most cited references103

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          The validity of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. An updated literature review.

          To review the literature of the validity of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). A review of the 747 identified papers that used HADS was performed to address the following questions: (I) How are the factor structure, discriminant validity and the internal consistency of HADS? (II) How does HADS perform as a case finder for anxiety disorders and depression? (III) How does HADS agree with other self-rating instruments used to rate anxiety and depression? Most factor analyses demonstrated a two-factor solution in good accordance with the HADS subscales for Anxiety (HADS-A) and Depression (HADS-D), respectively. The correlations between the two subscales varied from.40 to.74 (mean.56). Cronbach's alpha for HADS-A varied from.68 to.93 (mean.83) and for HADS-D from.67 to.90 (mean.82). In most studies an optimal balance between sensitivity and specificity was achieved when caseness was defined by a score of 8 or above on both HADS-A and HADS-D. The sensitivity and specificity for both HADS-A and HADS-D of approximately 0.80 were very similar to the sensitivity and specificity achieved by the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ). Correlations between HADS and other commonly used questionnaires were in the range.49 to.83. HADS was found to perform well in assessing the symptom severity and caseness of anxiety disorders and depression in both somatic, psychiatric and primary care patients and in the general population.
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                Author and article information

                J Behav Addict
                J Behav Addict
                Journal of Behavioral Addictions
                Akadémiai Kiadó (Budapest )
                June 2020
                16 June 2020
                : 9
                : 2
                : 446-468
                [1 ]Dpto. Personalidad, Evaluación y Tratamientos Psicológicos , Universitat de València, Estudi General, Valencia, Spain
                [2 ]Dpto. Psicología Evolutiva y de la Educación , Universitat de València, Estudi General, Valencia, Spain
                [3 ]Dpto. Psicología Básica, Clínica y Psicobiología , Universitat Jaume I, Castelló de la Plana, Castellón, Spain
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence author. Departamento de Personalidad, Evaluación y Tratamientos Psicológicos, Facultad de Psicología, Universitat de València , Av. Blasco Ibáñez, 21, Valencia, 46010, Spain. Tel.: +34 963 983395; fax: +34 963 864669. E-mail: jesus.castro@ 123456uv.es
                Author information
                © 2020 The Author(s)

                Open Access statement. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium for non-commercial purposes, provided the original author and source are credited, a link to the CC License is provided, and changes – if any – are indicated.

                : 30 August 2019
                : 23 November 2019
                : 09 March 2020
                : 05 April 2020
                Page count
                Tables: 07, References: 103, Pages: 23
                Funded by: University Jaume I of Castellón
                Award ID: P1.1B2012-49
                Award ID: P1.1B2015-82
                Funded by: County Council Department of Education, Culture and Sports of the Valencian Community
                Award ID: APOSTD/2017/005
                Funded by: Ministry of Science and Innovation (Spain)
                Award ID: PSI2011-27992/11 I 384
                Full-length Report

                compulsive sexual behavior disorder (csbd),cluster analysis,occurrence,clinical profile


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