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      Dengue in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1986-1998

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          Abstract

          This paper presents epidemiological, laboratory, and clinical data on 12 years of dengue virus activity in the State of Rio de Janeiro from the time the disease was first confirmed virologically in April 1986 through April 1998. DEN-1 and DEN-2 viruses are the serotypes circulating in the state and were responsible for the epidemics reported during the last 12 years. The results published here show both the impact of dengue virus infections on the population and laboratory advances that have improved dengue diagnosis.

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          Most cited references 43

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          Isolation of a Singh's Aedes albopictus cell clone sensitive to Dengue and Chikungunya viruses.

           A Igarashi (1978)
          Twenty clones were isolated from cultured Aedes albopictus (Singh) cells in the presence of anti-Chikungunya (CHIK) virus serum. Each clone was tested for its yields of Dengue (DEN) viruses, types 1, 2, 3 and 4, and also CHIK virus. Clone C6 showed the highest yield of each virus tested. Forty-three clones obtained by recloning C6 in the presence of anti-DEN sera showed almost the same virus yields as C6. One of the clones, C6/36, showed mild to extensive cytopathic effects several days after virus infection, in contrast to the original uncloned (SAAR) cells. Fluorescent antibody staining revealed that the amount of virus antigen accumulated in the cytoplasm was almost the same in every cell in the case of clone C6/36, while it was highly heterogeneous for uncloned SAAR cells. Growth curves of the viruses indicated that clone C6/36 gave a significantly higher yield for each virus than uncloned SAAR cells up to 7 days after infection. Virus sensitivity of the C6/36 clone did not change by growing the cells with the medium used for uncloned SAAR cells, nor did the virus sensitivity of uncloned cells increase in medium used for clone C6/36. However, the C6/36 clone became resistant to CHIK virus, but not to DEN or Sindbis viruses, after incubation with the medium used for another A. albopictus cell line (SAAK). The transfer of the specific resistance to CHIK may be mediated by some latent virus related to CHIK.
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            Molecular evolution and distribution of dengue viruses type 1 and 2 in nature.

             R. Hesse (1990)
            During the past several decades, dengue viruses have progressively extended their geographic distribution, and are currently some of the most important mosquito-borne viruses associated with human illness. Determining the genetic variability and transmission patterns of these RNA viruses is crucial in developing effective control strategies for the disease. Primer-extension sequencing of less than 3% of the dengue genome (across the E/NS1 gene junction) provided sufficient information for estimating genetic relationships among 40 dengue type 1 and 40 type 2 virus isolates from diverse geographic areas and hosts. A quantitative comparison of these 240-nucleotide-long sequences revealed previously unrecognized evolutionary relationships between disease outbreaks. Five distinct virus genotypic groups were detected for each of the two serotypes. The evolutionary rates of epidemic dengue viruses of types 1 and 2 were similar, although the transmission pathways of these viruses around the world are different. For dengue type 2, one genotypic group represents an isolated, forest virus cycle which seems to have evolved independently in West Africa. This is the first genetic evidence of the existence of a sylvatic cycle of dengue virus, which is clearly distinct from outbreak viruses.
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              The impact of dengue haemorrhagic fever on liver function.

              The impact of dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) on liver function was studied by measuring serum transaminase levels on 45 patients with DHF confirmed by virus isolation and serodiagnosis in 1995. Abnormal levels of AST and ALT were observed in 97.7 and 37.3% of the patients, respectively. The fact that the level of AST was higher than that of ALT and that the elevation of transaminases was mild to moderate in most cases (< 5-fold greater than the normal upper limit for AST and ALT) showed that liver involvement was also mild to moderate in most cases of DHF. The results of transaminases did not differ significantly between cases with and without hepatitis B or hepatitis C virus infection, nor between primary and secondary cases of infection, but a significantly higher elevation of AST and ALT was observed in DHF patients with gastrointestinal haemorrhage. Two patients with dengue encephalopathy (in 1992) and one patient with dengue encephalopathy who died of massive gastrointestinal haemorrhage (in 1995) had unusually high transaminase levels as a sign of acute liver failure. It is concluded that DHF may cause mild to moderate liver dysfunction in most cases; only some patients may suffer from acute liver failure leading to encephalopathy and death.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
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                Journal
                mioc
                Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
                Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz
                Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde (Rio de Janeiro )
                1678-8060
                May 1999
                : 94
                : 3
                : 297-304
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
                [2 ] Instituto Oswaldo Cruz Brasil
                [3 ] Universidade Federal Fluminense Brazil
                [4 ] Secretaria Municipal de Saúde do Rio de Janeiro Brazil
                [5 ] Secretaria de Estado de Saúde do Estado do Rio de Janeiro Brazil
                Article
                S0074-02761999000300004
                10.1590/S0074-02761999000300004
                10419380
                Product
                Product Information: website
                Categories
                PARASITOLOGY
                TROPICAL MEDICINE

                Parasitology, Infectious disease & Microbiology

                dengue, epidemics, Rio de Janeiro, diagnosis

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