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      Investigation of Foot and Mouth Disease hotspots in northern Lao PDR : Investigation of FMD Hotspots in Northern Lao PDR

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          Most cited references 20

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          FMD vaccines

           T.R Doel (2003)
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            A new enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease virus. I. Development and method of ELISA.

            A liquid-phase blocking sandwich ELISA has been developed for the quantification of antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease virus which may replace the virus neutralisation (VN) test. This test employs the incubation of a constant amount of antigen with a range of test serum dilutions in the liquid-phase before being assayed using a trapping ELISA. Thus it does not rely on the availability or growth of tissue culture cells. The assay is rapid and relatively simple to perform, reagents are used economically and results may be recorded within 24 h. The ELISA is sensitive and results are more specific and more reproducible than those obtained by VN. Results are expressed as reciprocal antibody titres which are analogous and of a similar order to those recorded by VN. Individual titres, therefore, may be easily assessed by workers in the field who are already familiar with VN.
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              A review of the status of foot and mouth disease in South-East Asia and approaches to control and eradication.

              The author presents reports of foot and mouth disease (FMD) submitted between 1996 and 2001 to the Office International des Epizooties (OIE: World organisation for animal health) Sub-Commission for FMD in South-East Asia. Of the ten countries in South-East Asia, FMD is endemic in seven (Cambodia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam) and three are free of the disease (Brunei, Indonesia and Singapore). Part of the Philippines is also recognised internationally as being free of FMD. From 1996 to 2001, serotype O viruses caused outbreaks in all seven of the endemically infected countries. On the mainland, three different type O lineages have been recorded, namely: the South-East Asian (SEA) topotype, the pig-adapted or Cathay topotype and the pan-Asian topotype. Prior to 1999, one group of SEA topotype viruses occurred in the eastern part of the region and another group in the western part. However, in 1999, the pan-Asian lineage was introduced to the region and has become widespread. The Cathay topotype was reported from Vietnam in 1997 and is the only FMD virus currently endemic in the Philippines. Type Asia 1 has never been reported from the Philippines but was reported from all countries on the mainland except Vietnam between 1996 and 2001. Type A virus has not been reported from east of the Mekong River in the past six years and seems to be mainly confined to Thailand with occasional spillover into Malaysia. The distribution and movement of FMD viruses in the region is a reflection of the trade-driven movement of livestock. There is great disparity across the region in the strength and resources of the animal health services and this has a direct impact on FMD control. Regulatory environments are not well developed and enforcement of regulations can be ineffectual. The management of animal movement is quite variable across the region and much market-driven transboundary movement of livestock is unregulated. Formal quarantine approaches are generally not supported by traders or are not available. Vaccination is not used widely as a control tool because of the expense. However, it is applied by the Veterinary Services in Malaysia to control incursions of the disease and there is a mass vaccination programme for large ruminants in Thailand where the Government produces and distributes vaccine. Vaccination is also used by the commercial pig sector, particularly in the Philippines and Thailand.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
                Wiley
                18651674
                August 2013
                August 2013
                June 12 2012
                : 60
                : 4
                : 315-329
                Article
                10.1111/j.1865-1682.2012.01350.x
                © 2012

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