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      Impacts of Priming with Silicon on the Growth and Tolerance of Maize Plants to Alkaline Stress

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          Abstract

          Silicon (Si) has been known to augment plant defense against biotic and abiotic pressures. Maize ( Zea maize L.) is classified as a Si accumulator and is relatively susceptible to alkaline stress. In this study, seeds of maize were grown in pots and exposed to various concentrations of Na 2CO 3 (0, 25, 50, and 75 mM) with or without 1.5 mM Si in the form of sodium metasilicate Na 2O 3Si.5H 2O for 25 days. Alkaline-stressed plants showed a decrease in growth parameters, leaf relative water content (LRWC), and the contents of photosynthetic pigments, soluble sugars, total phenols and potassium ion (K +), as well as potassium/sodium ion (K +/Na +) ratio. By contrast, alkaline stress increased the contents of soluble proteins, total free amino acids, proline, Na + and malondialdehyde (MDA), as well as the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD) in stressed plants. On the other hand, application of Si by seed-priming improved growth of stressed plants, which was accompanied by the enhancement in LRWC, and levels of photosynthetic pigments, soluble sugars, soluble proteins, total free amino acids and K +, as well as activities of SOD, CAT, and POD enzymes. Furthermore, Si supplement resulted in a decrease in the contents of proline, MDA and Na +, which together with enhanced K + level led to a favorable adjustment of K +/Na + ratio, in stressed plants relative to plants treated with alkaline stress alone. Taken together, these results indicate that Si plays a pivotal role in alleviating the negative effects of alkaline stress on maize growth by improving water status, enhancing photosynthetic pigments, accumulating osmoprotectants rather than proline, activating the antioxidant machinery, and maintaining the balance of K +/Na + ratio. Thus, our findings demonstrate that seed-priming with Si is an efficient strategy that can be used to boost tolerance of maize plants to alkaline stress.

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          Benefits of plant silicon for crops: a review

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            Beneficial effects of silicon on salt and drought tolerance in plants

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              Mechanisms of silicon-mediated alleviation of drought and salt stress in plants: a review.

              Drought and salinity are the main abiotic stresses limiting crop yield and quality worldwide. Improving food production in drought- and salt-prone areas is the key to meet the increasing food demands in near future. It has been widely reported that silicon (Si), a second most abundant element in soil, could reduce drought and salt stress in plants. Here, we reviewed the emerging role of Si in enhancing drought and salt tolerance in plants and highlighted the mechanisms through which Si could alleviate both drought and salt stress in plants. Silicon application increased plant growth, biomass, photosynthetic pigments, straw and grain yield, and quality under either drought or salt stress. Under both salt and drought stress, the key mechanisms evoked are nutrient elements homeostasis, modification of gas exchange attributes, osmotic adjustment, regulating the synthesis of compatible solutes, stimulation of antioxidant enzymes, and gene expression in plants. In addition, Si application decreased Na(+) uptake and translocation while increased K(+) uptake and translocation under salt stress. However, these mechanisms vary with plant species, genotype, growth conditions, duration of stress imposed, and so on. This review article highlights the potential for improving plant resistance to drought and salt stress by Si application and provides a theoretical basis for application of Si in saline soils and arid and semiarid regions worldwide. This review article also highlights the future research needs about the role of Si under drought stress and in saline soils.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Plant Sci
                Front Plant Sci
                Front. Plant Sci.
                Frontiers in Plant Science
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1664-462X
                10 March 2016
                2016
                : 7
                : 243
                Affiliations
                [1] 1Botany Department, Faculty of Science, South Valley University Qena, Egypt
                [2] 2Biology Department, College of Applied Medical Science, Taif University Taif, Saudi Arabia
                [3] 3Plant Abiotic Stress Research Group & Faculty of Applied Sciences, Ton Duc Thang University Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
                [4] 4Signaling Pathway Research Unit, RIKEN Center for Sustainable Resource Science Yokohama, Japan
                Author notes

                Edited by: Mohammad Anwar Hossain, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Bangladesh

                Reviewed by: Chaoxing He, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China; Roghieh Hajiboland, University of Tabriz, Iran

                This article was submitted to Crop Science and Horticulture, a section of the journal Frontiers in Plant Science

                Article
                10.3389/fpls.2016.00243
                4785188
                27014283
                c71d744b-ba5f-4f88-8720-fdb5565025a1
                Copyright © 2016 Abdel Latef and Tran.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                History
                : 19 December 2015
                : 13 February 2016
                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 2, Equations: 0, References: 59, Pages: 10, Words: 0
                Categories
                Plant Science
                Original Research

                Plant science & Botany
                alkaline stress,antioxidant enzymes,leaf pigments,maize,osmoprotectants,seed-priming with si,stress mitigation

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