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      Location problem of Osmia cornuta nesting aids for optimum pollination

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          Abstract

          The economic contribution of insect pollinators is evident as they contribute to higher crop yield quantity and quality. The management of bee species is key to crop production, especially where wild and domesticated bees are in low abundance. Several bee species have been identified as possible candidates for replacing, or at least supplementing, the decreasing number of honey bees. Our research seeks to address the location problem as regards nesting aids for Osmia cornuta bees in orchards using mathematical programming models for determining the optimal location of nesting aids and optimizing the management of solitary bees. A differential evolution algorithm is used to solve a location model of Osmia cornuta nesting aids for optimum pollination. Instead of a random ad hoc location of nesting aids in an orchard, or at the edge of an orchard, we utilize an effective optimization tool to determine locations which will optimize pollination by alternative pollinators, and increase the economic output of an agricultural business. The importance of this proposed model is likely to increase with agricultural intensification, and the decrease of the numbers of wild pollinators.

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          Most cited references 73

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          Crop pollination from native bees at risk from agricultural intensification.

          Ecosystem services are critical to human survival; in selected cases, maintaining these services provides a powerful argument for conserving biodiversity. Yet, the ecological and economic underpinnings of most services are poorly understood, impeding their conservation and management. For centuries, farmers have imported colonies of European honey bees (Apis mellifera) to fields and orchards for pollination services. These colonies are becoming increasingly scarce, however, because of diseases, pesticides, and other impacts. Native bee communities also provide pollination services, but the amount they provide and how this varies with land management practices are unknown. Here, we document the individual species and aggregate community contributions of native bees to crop pollination, on farms that varied both in their proximity to natural habitat and management type (organic versus conventional). On organic farms near natural habitat, we found that native bee communities could provide full pollination services even for a crop with heavy pollination requirements (e.g., watermelon, Citrullus lanatus), without the intervention of managed honey bees. All other farms, however, experienced greatly reduced diversity and abundance of native bees, resulting in insufficient pollination services from native bees alone. We found that diversity was essential for sustaining the service, because of year-to-year variation in community composition. Continued degradation of the agro-natural landscape will destroy this "free" service, but conservation and restoration of bee habitat are potentially viable economic alternatives for reducing dependence on managed honey bees.
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            Long-term global trends in crop yield and production reveal no current pollination shortage but increasing pollinator dependency.

            There is evidence that pollinators are declining as a result of local and global environmental degradation [1-4]. Because a sizable proportion of the human diet depends directly or indirectly on animal pollination [5], the issue of how decreases in pollinator stocks could affect global crop production is of paramount importance [6-8]. Using the extensive FAO data set [9], we compared 45 year series (1961-2006) in yield, and total production and cultivated area of pollinator-dependent and nondependent crops [5]. We investigated temporal trends separately for the developed and developing world because differences in agricultural intensification, and socioeconomic and environmental conditions might affect yield and pollinators [10-13]. Since 1961, crop yield (Mt/ha) has increased consistently at average annual growth rates of approximately 1.5%. Temporal trends were similar between pollinator-dependent and nondependent crops in both the developed and developing world, thus not supporting the view that pollinator shortages are affecting crop yield at the global scale. We further report, however, that agriculture has become more pollinator dependent because of a disproportionate increase in the area cultivated with pollinator-dependent crops. If the trend toward favoring cultivation of pollinator-dependent crops continues, the need for the service provided by declining pollinators will greatly increase in the near future.
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              Optimum Distribution of Switching Centers in a Communication Network and Some Related Graph Theoretic Problems

               S. Hakimi (1965)
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Data curationRole: Formal analysisRole: Funding acquisitionRole: InvestigationRole: MethodologyRole: Project administrationRole: ResourcesRole: SoftwareRole: SupervisionRole: ValidationRole: VisualizationRole: Writing – original draftRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Data curationRole: Formal analysisRole: Funding acquisitionRole: InvestigationRole: MethodologyRole: Project administrationRole: ResourcesRole: SoftwareRole: SupervisionRole: ValidationRole: VisualizationRole: Writing – original draftRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Data curationRole: Formal analysisRole: Funding acquisitionRole: InvestigationRole: MethodologyRole: Project administrationRole: ResourcesRole: SoftwareRole: SupervisionRole: ValidationRole: VisualizationRole: Writing – original draftRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                PLoS One
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
                1932-6203
                31 December 2020
                2020
                : 15
                : 12
                Affiliations
                Faculty of Economic Informatics, Department of Operations Research and Econometrics, University of Economics in Bratislava, Bratislava, Slovakia
                Univerza v Mariboru, SLOVENIA
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                Article
                PONE-D-20-30891
                10.1371/journal.pone.0244610
                7774959
                33382818
                © 2020 Pekár et al

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 0, Pages: 19
                Product
                Funding
                Funded by: funder-id http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100003194, Agentúra Ministerstva Školstva, Vedy, Výskumu a Športu SR;
                Award ID: 1/0339/20
                Award Recipient :
                The Grant Agency of the Slovak Republic supported this work – VEGA grant no. 1/0339/20 https://www.minedu.sk/about-the-ministry/ The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
                Categories
                Research Article
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Agriculture
                Farms
                Orchards
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Physiology
                Plant Physiology
                Pollination
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Plant Science
                Plant Physiology
                Pollination
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Zoology
                Entomology
                Insects
                Hymenoptera
                Bees
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Organisms
                Eukaryota
                Animals
                Invertebrates
                Arthropoda
                Insects
                Hymenoptera
                Bees
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Zoology
                Animals
                Invertebrates
                Arthropoda
                Insects
                Hymenoptera
                Bees
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Zoology
                Entomology
                Insects
                Hymenoptera
                Bees
                Honey Bees
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Organisms
                Eukaryota
                Animals
                Invertebrates
                Arthropoda
                Insects
                Hymenoptera
                Bees
                Honey Bees
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Zoology
                Animals
                Invertebrates
                Arthropoda
                Insects
                Hymenoptera
                Bees
                Honey Bees
                Physical Sciences
                Mathematics
                Applied Mathematics
                Algorithms
                Evolutionary Algorithms
                Research and Analysis Methods
                Simulation and Modeling
                Algorithms
                Evolutionary Algorithms
                Research and Analysis Methods
                Computational Techniques
                Evolutionary Computation
                Evolutionary Algorithms
                Physical Sciences
                Mathematics
                Optimization
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Organisms
                Eukaryota
                Plants
                Fruits
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Agriculture
                Crop Science
                Crops
                Custom metadata
                All relevant data are within the manuscript and its Supporting information files.

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