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The pharmacology of carvedilol.

European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology

Adrenergic beta-Antagonists, pharmacology, Animals, Antihypertensive Agents, Carbazoles, Humans, Propanolamines

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      Abstract

      Carvedilol is a potent antihypertensive agent with a dual mechanism of action. At relatively low concentrations it is a competitive beta-adrenoceptor antagonist and a vasodilator, whereas at higher concentrations it is also a calcium channel antagonist. The antihypertensive activity of carvedilol is characterized by a decrease in peripheral vascular resistance, resulting from the vasodilator activity of the compound, with no reflex tachycardia, as a result of beta-adrenoceptor blockade. The antihypertensive activity of carvedilol is associated with an apparent "renal sparing" effect in that the reduction in mean arterial blood pressure does not compromise renal blood flow or urinary sodium excretion. Studies on the mechanism of action of carvedilol indicate that the compound is a potent competitive antagonist of beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoceptors with a dissociation constant (KB) of 0.9 nM at both beta-adrenoceptor subtypes. Carvedilol is also a potent alpha 1-adrenoceptor antagonist (KB = 11 nM), which accounts for most, if not all, of the vasodilating response produced by the compound. At concentrations above 1 microM, carvedilol is a calcium channel antagonist. This activity can be demonstrated in vivo at doses that represent the higher end of the antihypertensive dose-response curve. Although the calcium-channel blocking activity of carvedilol may not contribute to the antihypertensive activity of the compound, it may play a prominent role in certain peripheral vascular beds, such as the cutaneous circulation, where marked increases in blood flow are observed. The data indicate that carvedilol is an antihypertensive agent that is both a beta-adrenoceptor antagonist and a vasodilator.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

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