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      Pseudorhabdosynochus species (Monogenoidea, Diplectanidae) parasitizing groupers (Serranidae, Epinephelinae, Epinephelini) in the western Atlantic Ocean and adjacent waters, with descriptions of 13 new species Translated title: Espèces de Pseudorhabdosynochus (Monogenoidea, Diplectanidae) parasite de mérous (Serranidae, Epinephelinae, Epinephelini) dans les eaux de l’océan Atlantique Ouest et adjacentes, avec description de 13 nouvelles espèces

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          Abstract

          Seventeen of twenty-three species of groupers collected from the western Atlantic Ocean and adjacent waters were infected with 19 identified species (13 new) of Pseudorhabdosynochus Yamaguti, 1958 (Dactylogyridea, Diplectanidae); specimens of the Spanish flag Gonioplectrus hispanus, coney Cephalopholis fulva, marbled grouper Dermatolepis inermis, mutton hamlet Alphestes afer, and misty grouper Hyporthodus mystacinus were not infected; the yellowmouth grouper Mycteroperca interstitialis and yellowfin grouper Mycteroperca venenosa were infected with unidentified species of Pseudorhabdosynochus; the Atlantic creolefish Paranthias furcifer was infected with an unidentified species of Diplectanidae that could not be accommodated in Pseudorhabdosynochus. The following species of Pseudorhabdosynochus are described or redescribed based entirely or in part on new collections: Pseudorhabdosynochus americanus (Price, 1937) Kritsky & Beverley-Burton, 1986 from Atlantic goliath grouper Epinephelus itajara; Pseudorhabdosynochus yucatanensis Vidal-Martínez, Aguirre-Macedo & Mendoza-Franco, 1997 and Pseudorhabdosynochus justinella n. sp. from red grouper Epinephelus morio; Pseudorhabdosynochus kritskyi Dyer, Williams & Bunkley-Williams, 1995 from gag Mycteroperca microlepis; Pse udorhabdosynochus capurroi Vidal-Martínez & Mendoza-Franco, 1998 from black grouper Mycteroperca bonaci; Pseudorhabdosynochus hyphessometochus n. sp. from Mycteroperca interstitialis; Pseudorhabdosynochus sulamericanus Santos, Buchmann & Gibson, 2000 from snowy grouper Hyporthodus niveatus and Warsaw grouper Hyporthodus nigritus (new host record); Pseudorhabdosynochus firmicoleatus n. sp. from yellowedge grouper Hyporthodus flavolimbatus and snowy grouper H. niveatus; Pseudorhabdosynochus mcmichaeli n. sp., Pseudorhabdosynochus contubernalis n. sp., and Pseudorhabdosynochus vascellum n. sp. from scamp Mycteroperca phenax; Pseudorhabdosynochus meganmarieae n. sp. from graysby Cephalopholis cruentata; Pseudorhabdosynochus beverleyburtonae (Oliver, 1984) Kritsky & Beverley-Burton, 1986 from dusky grouper Mycteroperca marginata; Pseudorhabdosynochus mizellei n. sp. from red hind Epinephelus guttatus; Pseudorhabdosynochus williamsi n. sp. from rock hind Epinephelus adscensionis; Pseudorhabdosynochus bunkleywilliamsae n. sp. from Nassau grouper Epinephelus striatus; Pseudorhabdosynochus mycteropercae n. sp. from tiger grouper Mycteroperca tigris; and Pseudorhabdosynochus tumeovagina n. sp. from speckled hind Epinephelus drummondhayi. Pseudorhabdosynochus woodi n. sp. from red hind Epinephelus guttatus is described based on specimens from the US National Parasite Collection (USNPC). Drawings of the haptoral and copulatory sclerites of the type specimens in the USNPC of Pseudorhabdosynochus monaensis Dyer, Williams & Bunkley-Williams, 1994 from rock hind Epinephelus adscensionis are presented. Finally, a note confirming Pseudorhabdosynochus epinepheli Yamaguti, 1958 rather than its senior synonym Pseudorhabdosynochus epinepheli (Yamaguti, 1938) Kritsky & Beverley-Burton, 1986 as the type species of Pseudorhabdosynochus is provided.

          Translated abstract

          Dix-sept des 23 espèces de mérous prélevées dans les eaux de l’océan Atlantique Ouest et adjacentes sont infectées avec 19 espèces identifiées (13 nouvelles) de Pseudorhabdosynochus Yamaguti, 1958 (Dactylogyridea, Diplectanidae) ; les spécimens de Gonioplectrus hispanus, Cephalopholis fulva, Dermatolepis inermis, Alphestes afer et Hyporthodus mystacinus n’étaient pas infectés ; Mycteroperca interstitialis et Mycteroperca venenosa étaient infectés par des espèces non identifiées de Pseudorhabdosynochus ; Paranthias furcifer était infecté par une espèce non identifiée de Diplectanidae qui ne correspond pas à Pseudorhabdosynochus. Les espèces suivantes de Pseudorhabdosynochus sont décrites ou redécrites, sur la base de nouvelles collections en tout ou pour partie : Pseudorhabdosynochus americanus (Price, 1937) Kritsky & Beverley-Burton, 1986, d’ Epinephelus itajara ; Pseudorhabdosynochus yucatanensis Vidal-Martínez, Aguirre-Macedo & Mendoza-Franco, 1997 et Pseudorhabdosynochus justinella n. sp., d’ Epinephelus morio ; Pseudorhabdosynochus kritskyi Dyer, Williams & Bunkley-Williams, 1995, de Mycteroperca microlepis ; Pseudorhabdosynochus capurroi Vidal-Martínez & Mendoza-Franco, 1998, de Mycteroperca bonaci ; Pseudorhabdosynochus hyphessometochus n. sp. de Mycteroperca interstitialis ; Pseudorhabdosynochus sulamericanus Santos, Buchmann & Gibson, 2000, d’ Hyporthodus niveatus et Hyporthodus nigritus (nouvelle mention d’hôte) ; Pseudorhabdosynochus firmicoleatus n. sp., d’ Hyporthodus flavolimbatus et H. niveatus ; Pseudorhabdosynochus mcmichaeli n. sp., Pseudorhabdosynochus contubernalis n. sp. et Pseudorhabdosynochus vascellum n. sp., de Mycteroperca phenax ; Pseudorhabdosynochus meganmarieae n. sp., de Cephalopholis cruentata ; Pseudorhabdosynochus beverleyburtonae (Oliver, 1984) Kritsky & Beverley-Burton, 1986, de Mycteroperca marginata ; Pseudorhabdosynochus mizellei n. sp., d’ Epinephelus guttatus ; Pseudorhabdosynochus williamsi n. sp., d’ Epinephelus adscensionis ; Pseudorhabdosynochus bunkleywilliamsae n. sp., d’ Epinephelus striatus ; Pseudorhabdosynochus mycteropercae n. sp., de Mycteroperca tigris ; Pseudorhabdosynochus tumeovagina n. sp., d’ Epinephelus drummondhayi. Pseudorhabdosynochus woodi n. sp., d’ Epinephelus guttatus, est décrit à partir de spécimens de la collection nationale de parasites des États-Unis (USNPC). Des dessins des sclérites haptoraux et copulatoires des spécimens types de l’USNPC de Pseudorhabdosynochus monaensis Dyer, Williams & Bunkley-Williams, 1994, d’ Epinephelus adscensionis, sont présentés. Enfin, une note confirmant Pseudorhabdosynochus epinepheli Yamaguti, 1958 plutôt que son synonyme Pseudorhabdosynochus epinepheli (Yamaguti, 1938) Kritsky & Beverley-Burton, 1986 comme espèce-type de Pseudorhabdosynochus est fournie.

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          Most cited references 23

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          Parasite biodiversity in a coral reef fish: twelve species of monogeneans on the gills of the grouper Epinephelus maculatus (Perciformes: Serranidae) off New Caledonia, with a description of eight new species of Pseudorhabdosynochus (Monogenea: Diplectanidae).

          Coral reefs are known for their high level of biodiversity, but parasite biodiversity has not been evaluated. Cases such as Epinephelus maculatus, described here, show that the numerical estimation of parasite biodiversity in coral reefs could reach more than ten times the number of fish species; consequently, the extinction of certain fish species from endangered coral reefs would result in the co-extinction of at least ten times the number of parasite species. E. maculatus is a grouper of intermediate size (1-2 kg) and common in the coral reefs of New Caledonia, South Pacific. Based on the examination of more than 800 monogenean specimens, 12 species of monogeneans (ten diplectanids and two ancyrocephalids) were differentiated on the gills. These species of diplectanids have not been found in other epinephelines in the same area and thus are considered as specific to this host. In addition, three species of copepods, and isopod larvae, are present on the gills; E. maculatus thus has a total of 16 species of gill ectoparasites, which can be found together on a single individual fish. Diplectanids include Laticola dae Journo & Justine, 2006, which is the most abundant species representing about 50% of the specimens, and nine species which are rare, each representing 2-7% of the specimens: Diplectanum uitoe n. sp. and eight species of Pseudorhabdosynochus Yamaguti, 1958. D. uitoe, provisionally attributed to Diplectanum Diesing, 1858, is characterised by a small conical penis with internal walls. Pseudorhabdosynochus auitoe n. sp., P. buitoe n. sp., P. cuitoe n. sp., P. duitoe n. sp., P. euitoe n. sp. and P. fuitoe n. sp. are differentiated on the basis of the morphology of the sclerotised vagina, but are very similar in other characteristics; P. guitoe n. sp. is characterised by a quadriloculate organ with very thick walls and a very small sclerotised vagina; and P. huitoe n. sp. is characterised by its sclerotised vagina and by very long ventral and dorsal haptoral bars. Two rare (2-3% of specimens) ancyrocephalids, Haliotrema epinepheli Young, 1969 and Haliotrema sp., are briefly described in relation to the male copulatory organs and haptoral bars; H. epinepheli is apparently a generalist species found in various epinephelines and other fish species. A table of the 50 species of diplectanids (Pseudorhabdosynochus, Laticola Yang et al., 2006, Echinoplectanum Justine & Euzet, 2006 and Diplectanum) from serranids is provided.
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            Are all species of Pseudorhabdosynochus strictly host specific? A molecular study.

            Species of the diplectanid monogenean genus Pseudorhabdosynochus are strictly host-specific (specialist), with the exception of P. cyanopodus, which was reported in New Caledonia, South Pacific, from two host species, Epinephelus cyanopodus and E. chlorostigma. We sequenced the COI gene of both host fish species and of their monogeneans. Morphological identification and pairwise distances showed that the two fish species were distinct (difference 6.1-6.6%), but that their monogeneans were not (difference 0-1.5%). A morphological study of sclerotised parts showed that specimens of P. cyanopodus are similar in both fish. Most species of groupers and their associated Pseudorhabdosynochus species are from warm surface waters, but the two groupers E. cyanopodus and E. chlorostigma are usually caught in deep-sea on the outer slope of the coral reef. This suggests that acquisition of a less strict host specificity is an adaptation of P. cyanopodus to deep-sea hosts. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
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              Spatial and temporal repeatability in parasite community structure of tropical fish hosts.

              An assessment is made of the repeatability of parasite community structure in space for a marine fish, and in space and time for a freshwater fish from south-eastern Mexico. The marine fish species was the red grouper, Epinephelus morio (collected from 9 localities), and the freshwater species was the cichlid, Cichlasoma urophthalmus (collected from 6 localities: including monthly at 2 localities for 1 year, and bimonthly at 1 locality in 1990 and 1999). Pairwise interspecific associations and analyses of nested patterns in the distributions of parasite species among hosts were used in both fish species, with comparisons over time made only with the cichlid. Positive interspecific associations, and nested patterns were noted in some localities for both fish species, and/or at some sampling times for the cichlid fish. However, non-random patterns in the structure of parasite communities in these 2 host species only were observed sporadically. When present, nestedness in both fish species was apparently linked with a positive association between total infection intensities and fish size. Additionally, adjacent localities were more likely to display similar parasite community structure than distant ones. This preliminary result suggests that distance between localities is an important determinant of predictability in parasite community structure.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Parasite
                Parasite
                parasite
                Parasite
                EDP Sciences
                1252-607X
                1776-1042
                2015
                12 August 2015
                : 22
                : ( publisher-idID: parasite/2015/01 )
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Health Education Program, School of Health Professions, Campus Box 8090, Idaho State University Pocatello Idaho 83209 USA
                [2 ] Fish and Wildlife Health Group, Fish and Wildlife Research Institute, Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission 100 8th Avenue Southeast St. Petersburg Florida 33701-5020 USA
                [3 ] Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Fish and Wildlife Research Institute 1220 Prospect Avenue, No. 285 Melbourne Florida 32901 USA
                Author notes
                Article
                parasite150040 10.1051/parasite/2015024
                10.1051/parasite/2015024
                4536336
                26272242
                © D.C. Kritsky et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2015

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 21, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 60, Pages: 44
                Categories
                Research Article

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