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      Iron oxide nanoparticles: Diagnostic, therapeutic and theranostic applications

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          Abstract

          Many different iron oxide nanoparticles have been evaluated over the years, for many different biomedical applications. We here summarize the synthesis, surface functionalization and characterization of iron oxide nanoparticles, as well as their (pre-) clinical use in diagnostic, therapeutic and theranostic settings. Diagnostic applications include liver, lymph node, inflammation and vascular imaging, employing mostly magnetic resonance imaging but recently also magnetic particle imaging. Therapeutic applications encompass iron supplementation in anemia and advanced cancer treatments, such as modulation of macrophage polarization, magnetic fluid hyperthermia and magnetic drug targeting. Because of their properties, iron oxide nanoparticles are particularly useful for theranostic purposes. Examples of such setups, in which diagnosis and therapy are intimately combined and in which iron oxide nanoparticles are used, are image-guided drug delivery, image-guided and microbubble-mediated opening of the blood-brain barrier, and theranostic tissue engineering. Together, these directions highlight the versatility and the broad applicability of iron oxide nanoparticles, and they indicate that multiple iron oxide nanoparticle-based materials will be integrated in future medical practice.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
          Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
          Elsevier BV
          0169409X
          January 2019
          January 2019
          Article
          10.1016/j.addr.2019.01.005
          7115878
          30639256
          c7421d19-5dc1-4d6c-9f55-23065db2c8f6
          © 2019

          https://www.elsevier.com/tdm/userlicense/1.0/

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