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      Individual focused studies of functional brain development in early human infancy

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      Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences

      Elsevier BV

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          Most cited references 58

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          Specification of cerebral cortical areas.

           P Rakic (1988)
          How the immense population of neurons that constitute the human cerebral neocortex is generated from progenitors lining the cerebral ventricle and then distributed to appropriate layers of distinctive cytoarchitectonic areas can be explained by the radial unit hypothesis. According to this hypothesis, the ependymal layer of the embryonic cerebral ventricle consists of proliferative units that provide a proto-map of prospective cytoarchitectonic areas. The output of the proliferative units is translated via glial guides to the expanding cortex in the form of ontogenetic columns, whose final number for each area can be modified through interaction with afferent input. Data obtained through various advanced neurobiological techniques, including electron microscopy, immunocytochemistry, [3H]thymidine and receptor autoradiography, retrovirus gene transfer, neural transplants, and surgical or genetic manipulation of cortical development, furnish new details about the kinetics of cell proliferation, their lineage relationships, and phenotypic expression that favor this hypothesis. The radial unit model provides a framework for understanding cerebral evolution, epigenetic regulation of the parcellation of cytoarchitectonic areas, and insight into the pathogenesis of certain cortical disorders in humans.
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            Modeling the hemodynamic response to brain activation.

            Neural activity in the brain is accompanied by changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) and blood oxygenation that are detectable with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) techniques. In this paper, recent mathematical models of this hemodynamic response are reviewed and integrated. Models are described for: (1) the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal as a function of changes in cerebral oxygen extraction fraction (E) and cerebral blood volume (CBV); (2) the balloon model, proposed to describe the transient dynamics of CBV and deoxy-hemoglobin (Hb) and how they affect the BOLD signal; (3) neurovascular coupling, relating the responses in CBF and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO(2)) to the neural activity response; and (4) a simple model for the temporal nonlinearity of the neural response itself. These models are integrated into a mathematical framework describing the steps linking a stimulus to the measured BOLD and CBF responses. Experimental results examining transient features of the BOLD response (post-stimulus undershoot and initial dip), nonlinearities of the hemodynamic response, and the role of the physiologic baseline state in altering the BOLD signal are discussed in the context of the proposed models. Quantitative modeling of the hemodynamic response, when combined with experimental data measuring both the BOLD and CBF responses, makes possible a more specific and quantitative assessment of brain physiology than is possible with standard BOLD imaging alone. This approach has the potential to enhance numerous studies of brain function in development, health, and disease.
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              Statistical parametric maps in functional imaging: A general linear approach

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
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                Journal
                Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
                Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
                Elsevier BV
                23521546
                August 2021
                August 2021
                : 40
                : 137-143
                Article
                10.1016/j.cobeha.2021.04.017
                © 2021

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