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      Worse In-Hospital Outcomes in Patients with Transient Ischemic Attack in Association with Acute Kidney Injury: Analysis of Nationwide In-Patient Sample

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          Abstract

          Objectives: The effect of acute kidney injury (AKI) on outcomes of transient ischemic attack (TIA) is largely unknown. We wanted to determine the impact of AKI on the outcomes of patients admitted with TIA. Methods: Data from all adult patients admitted to the U.S. hospitals between 2005 and 2011 with a primary discharge diagnosis of TIA and secondary diagnosis of AKI were included, using the nationwide in-patient dataset. The association of AKI with TIA-related mortality and discharge outcomes was analyzed after adjusting for potential confounders using logistic regression analysis. Results: Of the 1,173,340 patients admitted with TIA, 45,974 (3.8%) had AKI. Dialysis was required in 29 (0.06%) patients. TIA patients with AKI had higher rates of moderate-to-severe disability (21.2 vs. 13.7%, p ≤ 0.0001), and in-hospital mortality (0.6 vs. 0.1%, p ≤ 0.0001) compared with those without AKI. After adjusting for age, sex, and potential confounders; TIA patients with AKI had higher odds of moderate-to-severe disability [OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.2-1.4, p < 0.0001] and death (OR 4.2, 95% CI 3.0-6.1, p < 0.0001). Conclusions: AKI in patients with TIA is associated with significantly higher rates of moderate-to-severe disability at discharge and in-hospital mortality compared with those without AKI.

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          Most cited references 13

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          Validity of International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification Codes for Acute Renal Failure.

          Administrative and claims databases may be useful for the study of acute renal failure (ARF) and ARF that requires dialysis (ARF-D), but the validity of the corresponding diagnosis and procedure codes is unknown. The performance characteristics of International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes for ARF were assessed against serum creatinine-based definitions of ARF in 97,705 adult discharges from three Boston hospitals in 2004. For ARF-D, ICD-9-CM codes were compared with review of medical records in 150 patients with ARF-D and 150 control patients. As compared with a diagnostic standard of a 100% change in serum creatinine, ICD-9-CM codes for ARF had a sensitivity of 35.4%, specificity of 97.7%, positive predictive value of 47.9%, and negative predictive value of 96.1%. As compared with review of medical records, ICD-9-CM codes for ARF-D had positive predictive value of 94.0% and negative predictive value of 90.0%. It is concluded that administrative databases may be a powerful tool for the study of ARF, although the low sensitivity of ARF codes is an important caveat. The excellent performance characteristics of ICD-9-CM codes for ARF-D suggest that administrative data sets may be particularly well suited for research endeavors that involve patients with ARF-D.
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            Plasma cytokine levels predict mortality in patients with acute renal failure.

            Critically ill patients with acute renal failure (ARF) experience a high mortality rate. Animal and human studies suggest that proinflammatory cytokines lead to the development of a systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), which is temporally followed by a counter anti-inflammatory response syndrome (CARS). This process has not been specifically described in critically ill patients with ARF. The Program to Improve Care in Acute Renal Disease (PICARD) is a prospective, multicenter cohort study designed to examine the natural history, practice patterns, and outcomes of treatment in critically ill patients with ARF. In a subset of 98 patients with ARF, we measured plasma proinflammatory cytokines [interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)], the acute-phase reactant C-reactive protein (CRP), and the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 at study enrollment and over the course of illness. When compared with healthy subjects and end-stage renal disease patients on maintenance hemodialysis, patients with ARF had significantly higher plasma levels of all measured cytokines. Additionally, the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-8 were significantly higher in nonsurvivors versus survivors [median 234.7 (interdecile range 64.8 to 1775.9) pg/mL vs. 113.5 (46.1 to 419.3) pg/mL, P= 0.02 for IL-6; 35.5 (14.1 to 237.9) pg/mL vs. 21.2 (8.5 to 87.1) pg/mL, P= 0.03 for IL-8]. The anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 was also significantly higher in nonsurvivors [3.1 (0.5 to 41.9) pg/mL vs. 2.4 (0.5 to 16.9) pg/mL, P= 0.04]. For each natural log unit increase in the levels of IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10, the odds of death increased by 65%, 54%, and 34%, respectively, corresponding to increases in relative risk of approximately 30%, 25%, and 15%. The presence or absence of SIRS or sepsis was not a major determinant of plasma cytokine concentration in this group of patients. There is evidence of ongoing SIRS with concomitant CARS in critically ill patients with ARF, with higher levels of plasma IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 in patients with ARF who die during hospitalization. Strategies to modulate inflammation must take into account the complex cytokine biology in patients with established ARF.
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              The prognostic importance of a small acute decrement in kidney function in hospitalized patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

              Recently, acute kidney injury defined by small changes in serum creatinine levels was associated with worse short-term outcomes; however, the precision and variability of this association was not fully explored. Systematic review and meta-analysis. Hospitalized patients. MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched for observational cohort studies and randomized controlled trials published from 1990 through February 2007 that provided information for small changes in serum creatinine levels. Small acute changes in serum creatinine levels by absolute and percentage of changes in serum creatinine levels (lower threshold for increase in serum creatinine or=50%) had the greatest RR of death (RR, 6.9; 95% CI, 2.0 to 24.5). Results were similar when absolute changes in creatinine levels were considered and when pooled estimates of adjusted RR were used. Individual patient data were unavailable; thus, only group-level data were pooled for meta-analysis. Results showed a significant degree of statistical heterogeneity that was only partially ameliorated by separating studies into subsets based on clinical setting. Short-term mortality and acute decreases in renal function are associated through a graded relationship such that even mild changes in serum creatinine levels portend worse outcome in a variety of clinical settings and patient-types.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                AJN
                Am J Nephrol
                10.1159/issn.0250-8095
                American Journal of Nephrology
                S. Karger AG
                0250-8095
                1421-9670
                2014
                October 2014
                11 October 2014
                : 40
                : 3
                : 258-262
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Nephrology and Hypertension, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio, bZeenat Qureshi Stroke Institute, St. Cloud, Minn., cDepartment of Neurology, Emory Healthcare, Atlanta, Ga., and dDepartment of Internal Medicine and Neurology, Ochsner Neuroscience Institute, Ochsner Clinic Foundation, New Orleans, La., USA
                Author notes
                *Fahad Saeed, MD, Department of Nephrology and Hypertension, Cleveland Clinic, 9500 Euclid Ave, Cleveland, OH 44195 (USA), E-Mail fahadsaeed20@gmail.com
                Article
                367855 Am J Nephrol 2014;40:258-262
                10.1159/000367855
                25322955
                © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Tables: 2, Pages: 5
                Categories
                Original Report: Patient-Oriented, Translational Research

                Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

                Transient ischemic attack, Acute kidney injury

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