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      Insulin/Foxo1 pathway regulates expression levels of adiponectin receptors and adiponectin sensitivity.

      The Journal of Biological Chemistry

      Transcription Factors, Adenoviridae, pharmacology, Streptozocin, Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction, metabolism, Receptors, Cell Surface, Receptors, Adiponectin, RNA, Messenger, Proteins, Protein Binding, Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases, Muscle, Skeletal, Muscle Cells, Mice, Obese, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Mice, Liver, Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins, Insulin Resistance, Insulin, Hepatocytes, Glucose, Gene Transfer Techniques, Forkhead Transcription Factors, Fatty Acids, Cell Line, Blotting, Western, Blood Glucose, Animals, Adiponectin, genetics, physiology

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          Adiponectin/Acrp30 is a hormone secreted by adipocytes, which acts as an antidiabetic and antiatherogenic adipokine. We reported previously that AdipoR1 and -R2 serve as receptors for adiponectin and mediate increased fatty acid oxidation and glucose uptake by adiponectin. In the present study, we examined the expression levels and roles of AdipoR1/R2 in several physiological and pathophysiological states such as fasting/refeeding, obesity, and insulin resistance. Here we show that the expression of AdipoR1/R2 in insulin target organs, such as skeletal muscle and liver, is significantly increased in fasted mice and decreased in refed mice. Insulin deficiency induced by streptozotocin increased and insulin replenishment reduced the expression of AdipoR1/R2 in vivo. Thus, the expression of AdipoR1/R2 appears to be inversely correlated with plasma insulin levels in vivo. Interestingly, the incubation of hepatocytes or myocytes with insulin reduced the expression of AdipoR1/R2 via the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Foxo1-dependent pathway in vitro. Moreover, the expressions of AdipoR1/R2 in ob/ob mice were significantly decreased in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue, which was correlated with decreased adiponectin binding to membrane fractions of skeletal muscle and decreased AMP kinase activation by adiponectin. This adiponectin resistance in turn may play a role in worsening insulin resistance in ob/ob mice. In conclusion, the expression of AdipoR1/R2 appears to be inversely regulated by insulin in physiological and pathophysiological states such as fasting/refeeding, insulin deficiency, and hyper-insulinemia models via the insulin/phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Foxo1 pathway and is correlated with adiponectin sensitivity.

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