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      Seroprevalence of Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) and incidence of Kaposi's sarcoma in Iran

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          Abstract

          Seroepidemiological surveys show that the prevalence of human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) infection mostly varies in various geographical areas and reflects the local incidence of classic and endemic KS, being widespread in sub-Saharan Africa and Mediterranean countries and uncommon in the USA and Northern Europe. In the Middle East only few populations, such as Ashkenazi and Sephardic groups in Israel, have been adequately evaluated for HHV-8 seroprevalence. Among Iranian population a striking higher seroprevalence of HHV8 has been reported among haemodialysis (16.9%), renal transplant recipients (25%) and HIV (45.7%) patients compared to blood donors (2%). Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is the rarest cancer in Iran, with an annual age-standardized incidence varying from 0.10 to 0.17 per 100,000 in males and from 0.06 to 0.08 per 100,000 in females. KS, however, is one of the most important malignancies in Iranian renal transplanted patients affecting up to 2.4% of organ recipients. The epidemiology of HHV8 and KS in Iran needs further evaluation. While the high prevalence of HHV-8 antibodies in HIV positive and haemodialysis individuals may be attributed to high-risk sexual behavior and polytransfusions, respectively, unknown determinants may be responsible for high seroprevalence of HHV8 and high incidence of KS in solid organ recipients. A global survey on HHV8 seroprevalence in Iran is mandatory to define co-factors associated with HHV8 infection and KS risk in the general Iranian population and in specific patient groups.

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          Most cited references 73

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          Identification of herpesvirus-like DNA sequences in AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma.

          Representational difference analysis was used to isolate unique sequences present in more than 90 percent of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) tissues obtained from patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). These sequences were not present in tissue DNA from non-AIDS patients, but were present in 15 percent of non-KS tissue DNA samples from AIDS patients. The sequences are homologous to, but distinct from, capsid and tegument protein genes of the Gammaherpesvirinae, herpesvirus saimiri and Epstein-Barr virus. These KS-associated herpesvirus-like (KSHV) sequences appear to define a new human herpesvirus.
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            Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus-like DNA sequences in AIDS-related body-cavity-based lymphomas.

            DNA fragments that appeared to belong to an unidentified human herpesvirus were recently found in more than 90 percent of Kaposi's sarcoma lesions associated with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). These fragments were also found in 6 of 39 tissue samples without Kaposi's sarcoma, including 3 malignant lymphomas, from patients with AIDS, but not in samples from patients without AIDS. We examined the DNA of 193 lymphomas from 42 patients with AIDS and 151 patients who did not have AIDS. We searched the DNA for sequences of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) by Southern blot hybridization, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), or both. The PCR products in the positive samples were sequences and compared with the KSHV sequences in Kaposi's sarcoma tissues from patients with AIDS. KSHV sequences were identified in eight lymphomas in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. All eight, and only these eight, were body-cavity-based lymphomas--that is, they were characterized by pleural, pericardial, or peritoneal lymphomatous effusions. All eight lymphomas also contained the Epstein-Barr viral genome. KSHV sequences were not found in the other 185 lymphomas. KSHV sequences were 40 to 80 times more abundant in the body-cavity-based lymphomas than in the Kaposi's sarcoma lesions. A high degree of conservation of KSHV sequences in Kaposi's sarcoma and in the eight lymphomas suggests the presence of the same agent in both lesions. The recently discovered KSHV DNA sequences occur in an unusual subgroup of AIDS-related B-cell lymphomas, but not in any other lymphoid neoplasm studied thus far. Our finding strongly suggests that a novel herpesvirus has a pathogenic role in AIDS-related body-cavity-based lymphomas.
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              Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus-like DNA sequences in multicentric Castleman's disease.

              Multicentric Castleman's disease (MCD) is an atypical lymphoproliferative disorder defined using clinical and pathologic criteria. A characteristic of the MCD is a close association with Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), which occurs during the clinical course of most human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated MCD cases and also, but less frequently, in HIV-negative patients. Recently, sequences of a putative new Herpesvirus (KSHV) have been isolated and further detected in almost all the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) KS and in most of the non-AIDS KS samples. In this study, we searched for these Herpesvirus-like sequences in MCD samples of 31 patients. KSHV sequences were detected in 14 of 14 cases of HIV-associated MCD, including 5 cases without detectable KS. Moreover, KSHV was detected in 7 of 17 MCD cases in HIV-negative patients, including 1 case associated with a cutaneous KS. In 34 non-MCD reactive lymph nodes (follicular and/or interfollicular hyperplasia) in HIV-negative patients, KSHV was detected in only 1 case. In 1 HIV-negative case of MCD, KSHV was found in both the lymph node and peripheral blood samples. These data suggest that KSHV could play a role in the pathogenesis of MCD, especially in HIV-infected patients.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Infect Agent Cancer
                Infectious Agents and Cancer
                BioMed Central
                1750-9378
                2011
                28 April 2011
                : 6
                : 5
                Affiliations
                [1 ]School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
                [2 ]Research Center of Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization, Tehran, Iran
                1750-9378-6-5
                10.1186/1750-9378-6-5
                3108908
                21527020
                Copyright ©2011 Jalilvand et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Review

                Oncology & Radiotherapy

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