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      Growth and Skeletal Development in Families with NOGGIN Gene Mutations

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          Abstract

          Introduction: There is a scarcity of data on height as well as bone densitometry in humans with NOGGIN mutations. Methods: In 2 families with symphalangism, anthropometry, bone densitometry and genetic analysis of the NOGGIN gene were performed. Results: In family A, the height standard deviation scores of the affected father and son were –0.4 and 3.5, respectively. In family B, the height standard deviation scores of the affected father, twin daughters and another daughter were 1.7, 1.8, 2.4 and 1.8, respectively. In the children, percentage predicted bone mineral content (BMC) for height at the appendicular sites (total femur, femoral neck) was lower than at an axial site lumbar spine. In the 2 fathers, median bone mineral density at total femur and femoral neck was –0.3 standard deviation scores (–0.7, 0.2) and at lumbar spine the scores were –0.4 and 0.9. The children had median tibial and radial speed of sound velocities of –2.1 (–0.9 to –6.4) and –1.4 (–0.2 to –4.9), respectively. DNA analysis revealed a novel missense mutation in family A and family B, resulting in a Met190Val substitution and a Pro42Arg substitution, respectively. Conclusion: Heterozygous gene mutations in NOGGIN are associated with tall stature in children but not necessarily in adults. The appendicular BMC and speed of sound may be low in affected children but normalises by adulthood. However, axial BMC seems normal in childhood and is high in adulthood.

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          Most cited references 18

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          Bone morphogenetic proteins, their antagonists, and the skeleton.

          Skeletal homeostasis is determined by systemic hormones and local factors. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP) are unique because they induce the differentiation of mesenchymal cells toward cells of the osteoblastic lineage and also enhance the differentiated function of the osteoblast. However, the activity of BMPs needs to be tempered by intracellular and extracellular antagonists. BMPs bind to specific receptors and signal by phosphorylating the cytoplasmic proteins mothers against decapentaplegic (Smad) 1 and 5, which form heterodimers with Smad 4, and after nuclear translocation regulate transcription. BMP antagonists can be categorized as pseudoreceptors that compete with signaling receptors, inhibitory Smads that block signaling, intracellular binding proteins that bind Smad 1 and 5, and factors that induce ubiquitination and proteolysis of signaling Smads. In addition, a large number of extracellular proteins that bind BMPs and prevent their binding to signaling receptors have emerged. They are the components of the Spemann organizer, noggin, chordin, and follistatin, members of the Dan/Cerberus family, and twisted gastrulation. The antagonists tend to be specific for BMPs and are regulated by BMPs, indicating the existence and need of local feedback mechanisms to temper BMP cellular activities.
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            Structural basis of BMP signalling inhibition by the cystine knot protein Noggin.

            The interplay between bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and their antagonists governs developmental and cellular processes as diverse as establishment of the embryonic dorsal-ventral axis, induction of neural tissue, formation of joints in the skeletal system and neurogenesis in the adult brain. So far, the three-dimensional structures of BMP antagonists and the structural basis for inactivation have remained unknown. Here we report the crystal structure of the antagonist Noggin bound to BMP-7, which shows that Noggin inhibits BMP signalling by blocking the molecular interfaces of the binding epitopes for both type I and type II receptors. The BMP-7-binding affinity of site-specific variants of Noggin is correlated with alterations in bone formation and apoptosis in chick limb development, showing that Noggin functions by sequestering its ligand in an inactive complex. The scaffold of Noggin contains a cystine (the oxidized form of cysteine) knot topology similar to that of BMPs; thus, ligand and antagonist seem to have evolved from a common ancestral gene.
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              Differential Roles for Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) Receptor Type IB and IA in Differentiation and Specification of Mesenchymal Precursor Cells to Osteoblast and Adipocyte Lineages

               D Chen,  X Ji,  M.A. Harris (1998)
              Cumulative evidence indicates that osteoblasts and adipocytes share a common mesenchymal precursor and that bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) can induce both osteoblast and adipocyte differentiation of this precursor. In the present study, we investigated the roles of BMP receptors in differentiation along these separate lineages using a well-characterized clonal cell line, 2T3, derived from the mouse calvariae. BMP-2 induced 2T3 cells to differentiate into mature osteoblasts or adipocytes depending upon culture conditions. To test the specific roles of the type IA and IB BMP receptor components, truncated and constitutively active type IA and IB BMP receptor cDNAs were stably expressed in these cells. Overexpression of truncated type IB BMP receptor (trBMPR-IB) in 2T3 cells completely blocked BMP-2–induced osteoblast differentiation and mineralized bone matrix formation. Expression of trBMPR-IB also blocked mRNA expression of the osteoblast specific transcription factor, Osf2/ Cbfa1, and the osteoblast differentiation-related genes, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and osteocalcin (OC). BMP-2–induced ALP activity could be rescued by transfection of wild-type (wt) BMPR-IB into 2T3 clones containing trBMPR-IB. Expression of a constitutively active BMPR-IB (caBMPR-IB) induced formation of mineralized bone matrix by 2T3 cells without addition of BMP-2. In contrast, overexpression of trBMPR-IA blocked adipocyte differentiation and expression of caBMPR-IA induced adipocyte formation in 2T3 cells. Expression of the adipocyte differentiation-related genes, adipsin and PPARγ, correlated with the distinct phenotypic changes found after overexpression of the appropriate mutant receptors. These results demonstrate that type IB and IA BMP receptors transmit different signals to bone-derived mesenchymal progenitors and play critical roles in both the specification and differentiation of osteoblasts and adipocytes.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                HRE
                Horm Res Paediatr
                10.1159/issn.1663-2818
                Hormone Research in Paediatrics
                S. Karger AG
                1663-2818
                1663-2826
                2008
                April 2008
                21 January 2008
                : 69
                : 4
                : 221-226
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Paediatric Endocrinology, Royal Hospital for Sick Children and bDepartment of Clinical Genetics, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh, cBone and Endocrine Research Group, Royal Hospital for Sick Children, Glasgow, dHuman Genetics, Ninewells Hospital, Dundee, UK
                Article
                113022 Horm Res 2008;69:221–226
                10.1159/000113022
                18204269
                © 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 1, References: 24, Pages: 6
                Categories
                Original Paper

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