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      25th Anniversary Article: MXenes: A New Family of Two-Dimensional Materials

      1 , 1 , 1 , 1
      Advanced Materials
      Wiley

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          Abstract

          Recently a new, large family of two-dimensional (2D) early transition metal carbides and carbonitrides, called MXenes, was discovered. MXenes are produced by selective etching of the A element from the MAX phases, which are metallically conductive, layered solids connected by strong metallic, ionic, and covalent bonds, such as Ti2 AlC, Ti3 AlC2 , and Ta4 AlC3 . MXenes -combine the metallic conductivity of transition metal carbides with the hydrophilic nature of their hydroxyl or oxygen terminated surfaces. In essence, they behave as "conductive clays". This article reviews progress-both -experimental and theoretical-on their synthesis, structure, properties, intercalation, delamination, and potential applications. MXenes are expected to be good candidates for a host of applications. They have already shown promising performance in electrochemical energy storage systems. A detailed outlook for future research on MXenes is also presented.

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          Most cited references69

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          Electric Field Effect in Atomically Thin Carbon Films

          We describe monocrystalline graphitic films, which are a few atoms thick but are nonetheless stable under ambient conditions, metallic, and of remarkably high quality. The films are found to be a two-dimensional semimetal with a tiny overlap between valence and conductance bands, and they exhibit a strong ambipolar electric field effect such that electrons and holes in concentrations up to 10 13 per square centimeter and with room-temperature mobilities of ∼10,000 square centimeters per volt-second can be induced by applying gate voltage.
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            Two-dimensional nanocrystals produced by exfoliation of Ti3 AlC2.

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              Progress, challenges, and opportunities in two-dimensional materials beyond graphene.

              Graphene's success has shown that it is possible to create stable, single and few-atom-thick layers of van der Waals materials, and also that these materials can exhibit fascinating and technologically useful properties. Here we review the state-of-the-art of 2D materials beyond graphene. Initially, we will outline the different chemical classes of 2D materials and discuss the various strategies to prepare single-layer, few-layer, and multilayer assembly materials in solution, on substrates, and on the wafer scale. Additionally, we present an experimental guide for identifying and characterizing single-layer-thick materials, as well as outlining emerging techniques that yield both local and global information. We describe the differences that occur in the electronic structure between the bulk and the single layer and discuss various methods of tuning their electronic properties by manipulating the surface. Finally, we highlight the properties and advantages of single-, few-, and many-layer 2D materials in field-effect transistors, spin- and valley-tronics, thermoelectrics, and topological insulators, among many other applications.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Advanced Materials
                Adv. Mater.
                Wiley
                09359648
                February 2014
                February 2014
                December 19 2013
                : 26
                : 7
                : 992-1005
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Materials Science and Engineering and A.J. Drexel Nanotechnology Institute; Drexel University; Philadelphia PA 19104 USA
                Article
                10.1002/adma.201304138
                24357390
                c77d449a-b7d8-415e-acde-b2e29247ace2
                © 2013

                http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/tdm_license_1.1

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