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      Therapeutic potential of TNFα inhibitors in chronic inflammatory disorders: Past and future

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          Abstract

          In the past 20 years, patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), Crohn's disease (CD), and other immune diseases have witnessed the impact of a great treatment advance with the availability of biological TNFα inhibitors. With 5 approved anti-TNFα biologics on the market and soon available biosimilars, patients have more treatment options and have benefited from understanding the biology of TNFα. Nevertheless, many unmet needs remain for people living with TNFα-related diseases, namely some side effects and tolerance of current anti-TNFα biologics and resistance to therapies. Furthermore, common diseases such as osteoarthritis and back/neck pain may respond to anti-TNFα therapies at early onset of symptoms. Development of new TNFα inhibitors focusing on TNFR1 specific inhibitors, preferably small molecules that can be delivered orally, is much needed.

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          Most cited references56

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          A short-term study of chimeric monoclonal antibody cA2 to tumor necrosis factor alpha for Crohn's disease. Crohn's Disease cA2 Study Group.

          Studies in animals and an open-label trial have suggested a role for antibodies to tumor necrosis factor alpha, specifically chimeric monoclonal antibody cA2, in the treatment of Crohn's disease. We conducted a 12-week multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of cA2 in 108 patients with moderate-to-severe Crohn's disease that was resistant to treatment. All had scores on the Crohn's Disease Activity Index between 220 and 400 (scores can range from 0 to about 600, with higher scores indicating more severe illness). Patients were randomly assigned to receive a single two-hour intravenous infusion of either placebo or cA2 in a dose of 5 mg per kilogram of body weight, 10 mg per kilogram, or 20 mg per kilogram. Clinical response, the primary end point, was defined as a reduction of 70 or more points in the score on the Crohn's Disease Activity Index at four weeks that was not accompanied by a change in any concomitant medications. At four weeks, 81 percent of the patients given 5 mg of cA2 per kilogram (22 of 27 patients), 50 percent of those given 10 mg of cA2 per kilogram (14 of 28), and 64 percent of those given 20 mg of cA2 per kilogram (18 of 28) had had a clinical response, as compared with 17 percent of patients in the placebo group (4 of 24) (p<0.001 for the comparison of the cA2 group as a whole with placebo). Thirty-three percent of the patients given cA2 went into remission (defined as a score below 150 on the Crohn's Disease Activity Index), as compared with 4 percent of the patients given placebo (P=0.005). At 12 weeks, 41 percent of the cA2-treated patients (34 of 83) had had a clinical response, as compared with 12 percent of the patients in the placebo group (3 of 25) (P=0.008). The rates of adverse effects were similar in the groups. A single infusion of cA2 was an effective short-term treatment in many patients with moderate-to-severe, treatment-resistant Crohn's disease.
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            Infliximab for the treatment of fistulas in patients with Crohn's disease.

            Enterocutaneous fistulas are a serious complication of Crohn's disease and are difficult to treat. Infliximab, a chimeric monoclonal antibody to tumor necrosis factor alpha, has recently been developed as a treatment for Crohn's disease. We conducted a randomized, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of infliximab for the treatment of fistulas in patients with Crohn's disease. The study included 94 adult patients who had draining abdominal or perianal fistulas of at least three months' duration as a complication of Crohn's disease. Patients were randomly assigned to receive one of three treatments: placebo (31 patients), 5 mg of infliximab per kilogram of body weight (31 patients), or 10 mg of infliximab per kilogram (32 patients); all three were to be administered intravenously at weeks 0, 2, and 6. The primary end point was a reduction of 50 percent or more from base line in the number of draining fistulas observed at two or more consecutive study visits. A secondary end point was the closure of all fistulas. Sixty-eight percent of the patients who received 5 mg of infliximab per kilogram and 56 percent of those who received 10 mg per kilogram achieved the primary end point, as compared with 26 percent of the patients in the placebo group (P=0.002 and P=0.02, respectively). In addition, 55 percent of the patients assigned to receive 5 mg of infliximab per kilogram and 38 percent of those assigned to 10 mg per kilogram had closure of all fistulas, as compared with 13 percent of the patients assigned to placebo (P=0.001 and P=0.04, respectively). The median length of time during which the fistulas remained closed was three months. More than 60 percent of patients in all the groups had adverse events. For patients treated with infliximab, the most common were headache, abscess, upper respiratory tract infection, and fatigue. Infliximab is an efficacious treatment for fistulas in patients with Crohn's disease.
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              Adalimumab, a fully human anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha monoclonal antibody, for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis in patients taking concomitant methotrexate: the ARMADA trial.

              To evaluate the efficacy and safety of adalimumab (D2E7), a fully human monoclonal tumor necrosis factor alpha antibody, in combination with methotrexate (MTX) in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) despite treatment with MTX. In a 24-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 271 patients with active RA were randomly assigned to receive injections of adalimumab (20 mg, 40 mg, or 80 mg subcutaneously) or placebo every other week while continuing to take their long-term stable dosage of MTX. The primary efficacy end point was the American College of Rheumatology criteria for 20% improvement (ACR20) at 24 weeks. An ACR20 response at week 24 was achieved by a significantly greater proportion of patients in the 20-mg, 40-mg, and 80-mg adalimumab plus MTX groups (47.8%, 67.2%, and 65.8%, respectively) than in the placebo plus MTX group (14.5%) (P < 0.001). ACR50 response rates with the 20-mg, 40-mg, and 80-mg adalimumab dosages (31.9%, 55.2%, and 42.5%, respectively) were significantly greater than that with placebo (8.1%) (P = 0.003, P < 0.001, and P < 0.001, respectively). The 40-mg and 80-mg doses of adalimumab were associated with an ACR70 response (26.9% and 19.2%, respectively) that was statistically significantly greater than that with placebo (4.8%) (P < 0.001 and P = 0.020). Responses were rapid, with the greatest proportion of adalimumab-treated patients achieving an ACR20 response at the first scheduled visit (week 1). Adalimumab was safe and well tolerated; comparable numbers of adalimumab-treated patients and placebo-treated patients reported adverse events. The addition of adalimumab at a dosage of 20 mg, 40 mg, or 80 mg administered subcutaneously every other week to long-term MTX therapy in patients with active RA provided significant, rapid, and sustained improvement in disease activity over 24 weeks compared with MTX plus placebo.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Genes Dis
                Genes Dis
                Genes & Diseases
                Chongqing Medical University
                2352-4820
                2352-3042
                03 March 2020
                January 2021
                03 March 2020
                : 8
                : 1
                : 38-47
                Affiliations
                [a ]Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA
                [b ]Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA
                [c ]Department of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA
                [d ]Translational Musculoskeletal Research Center (TMRC), Corporal Michael J. Crescenz Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Philadelphia, PA, USA
                Author notes
                []Corresponding author. Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. Fax: +1 215 898 2401. zhanghon@ 123456pennmedicine.upenn.edu
                [∗∗ ]Corresponding author. Department of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. Fax: +1 215 893 2685. yejia.zhang@ 123456uphs.upenn.edu yejia.zhang@ 123456va.gov
                Article
                S2352-3042(20)30034-9
                10.1016/j.gendis.2020.02.004
                7859422
                33569512
                c7848339-d9f8-486a-b574-feff28e6ad05

                This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

                History
                : 21 December 2019
                : 13 February 2020
                : 25 February 2020
                Categories
                Review Article

                antibodies,receptors,small molecule inhibitors,tnfα,tnfr1
                antibodies, receptors, small molecule inhibitors, tnfα, tnfr1

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