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      Genetic Studies of IgA Nephropathy

      a , b

      Cardiorenal Medicine

      S. Karger AG

      IgA nephropathy, Glomerulonephritis, Genetics

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          Abstract

          IgA nephropathy is the commonest form of glomerulonephritis worldwide, but we still know relatively little about its pathogenesis. Potentially, genetic studies might provide new insights and suggest novel therapeutic approaches to this important cause of chronic kidney disease. Two approaches that are likely to yield new information are analysis of multiply affected pedigrees and large-scale, well-controlled association studies.

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          Most cited references 18

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          Association of NOD2 leucine-rich repeat variants with susceptibility to Crohn's disease.

           S Almer,  S Lesage,  J Hugot (2001)
          Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, the two main types of chronic inflammatory bowel disease, are multifactorial conditions of unknown aetiology. A susceptibility locus for Crohn's disease has been mapped to chromosome 16. Here we have used a positional-cloning strategy, based on linkage analysis followed by linkage disequilibrium mapping, to identify three independent associations for Crohn's disease: a frameshift variant and two missense variants of NOD2, encoding a member of the Apaf-1/Ced-4 superfamily of apoptosis regulators that is expressed in monocytes. These NOD2 variants alter the structure of either the leucine-rich repeat domain of the protein or the adjacent region. NOD2 activates nuclear factor NF-kB; this activating function is regulated by the carboxy-terminal leucine-rich repeat domain, which has an inhibitory role and also acts as an intracellular receptor for components of microbial pathogens. These observations suggest that the NOD2 gene product confers susceptibility to Crohn's disease by altering the recognition of these components and/or by over-activating NF-kB in monocytes, thus documenting a molecular model for the pathogenic mechanism of Crohn's disease that can now be further investigated.
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            Genome-wide association studies: theoretical and practical concerns.

            To fully understand the allelic variation that underlies common diseases, complete genome sequencing for many individuals with and without disease is required. This is still not technically feasible. However, recently it has become possible to carry out partial surveys of the genome by genotyping large numbers of common SNPs in genome-wide association studies. Here, we outline the main factors - including models of the allelic architecture of common diseases, sample size, map density and sample-collection biases - that need to be taken into account in order to optimize the cost efficiency of identifying genuine disease-susceptibility loci.
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              • Article: not found

              Population stratification and spurious allelic association.

              Great efforts and expense have been expended in attempts to detect genetic polymorphisms contributing to susceptibility to complex human disease. Concomitantly, technology for detection and scoring of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) has undergone rapid development, extensive catalogues of SNPs across the genome have been constructed, and SNPs have been increasingly used as a means for investigation of the genetic causes of complex human diseases. For many diseases, population-based studies of unrelated individuals--in which case-control and cohort studies serve as standard designs for genetic association analysis--can be the most practical and powerful approach. However, extensive debate has arisen about optimum study design, and considerable concern has been expressed that these approaches are prone to population stratification, which can lead to biased or spurious results. Over the past decade, a great shift has been noted, away from case-control and cohort studies, towards family-based association designs. These designs have fewer problems with population stratification but have greater genotyping and sampling requirements, and data can be difficult or impossible to gather. We discuss past evidence for population stratification on genotype-phenotype association studies, review methods to detect and account for it, and present suggestions for future study design and analysis.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEE
                Nephron Exp Nephrol
                10.1159/issn.1660-2129
                Cardiorenal Medicine
                S. Karger AG
                1660-2129
                2006
                February 2006
                11 November 2005
                : 102
                : 3-4
                : e76-e80
                Affiliations
                aRenal Section, Hammersmith Hospital, Imperial College, London, UK; bDepartment of Medical Genetics, Zhongshan Medical College, Guangzhou, PR China
                Article
                89685 Nephron Exp Nephrol 2006;102:e76–e80
                10.1159/000089685
                16282702
                © 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Tables: 1, References: 23, Pages: 1
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/89685
                Categories
                Minireview

                Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

                IgA nephropathy, Genetics, Glomerulonephritis

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