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Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease

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      Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide. This article focuses on current guidelines for the primary prevention of CVD and addresses management of key risk factors. Dietary modification, weight loss, exercise, and tobacco use cessation are specific areas where focused efforts can successfully reduce CVD risk on both an individual and a societal level. Specific areas requiring management include dyslipidemia, hypertension, physical activity, diabetes, aspirin use, and alcohol intake. These preventive efforts have major public health implications. As the global population continues to grow, health care expenditures will also rise, with the potential to eventually overwhelm the health care system. Therefore it is imperative to apply our collective efforts on CVD prevention to improve the cardiovascular health of individuals, communities, and nations.

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            Author and article information

            1Department of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA
            2Department of Pharmacy, Houston Methodist Hospital, Houston, TX, USA
            3Department of Medicine, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA
            Author notes
            Correspondence: Danny J. Eapen, MD, Department of Medicine. Emory University, 5671 Peachtree Dunwoody Road, Suite 300, Atlanta, GA 30342, USA, Fax: +1-678-8436350, E-mail: deapen@
            Cardiovascular Innovations and Applications
            Compuscript (Ireland )
            September 2016
            October 2016
            : 1
            : 4
            : 379-389
            cvia20160032 10.15212/CVIA.2016.0032
            Copyright © 2016 Cardiovascular Innovations and Applications

            This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 Unported License (CC BY-NC 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. See



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