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      Sympathetic Innervation of the Cardiovascular System in the Giraffe

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          Abstract

          The extreme blood pressure gradients in the giraffe, produced by gravity and behaviour, present a special challenge to blood flow and vascular capacity regulation, e.g. via sympathetic nerves. We report the distribution of nerves in vascular tissue from giraffe extremities and neck based on immunofluorescence against specific antisera to dopamine-β-hydroxylase, neuropeptide Y, neurofilament, and synapsin I. Sympathetic innervation of gravitation-dependent arteries in the limbs was restricted to the adventitia-media border, while in carotid arteries fibers penetrated deep into the media. Surprisingly, limb veins appeared to be devoid of sympathetic innervation, while jugular veins had a sparse innervation. The morphological response, medial hypertrophy, that parallels the hydrostatic pressure gradients in the circulation combines with the thick skin and tight underlying fascia, the ‘g-suit’, and an exquisitely distributed sympathetic innervation pattern to provide an effective array of mechanisms for cardiovascular regulation in the adult giraffe.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          JVR
          J Vasc Res
          10.1159/issn.1018-1172
          Journal of Vascular Research
          S. Karger AG
          1018-1172
          1423-0135
          1988
          1988
          23 September 2008
          : 25
          : 6
          : 299-307
          Affiliations
          aInstitute of Neurobiology, University of Göteborg, Sweden; bSpace Physiology Branch, NASA-Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, Calif, USA; cDepartment of Pharmacology and Cell Biophysics, University of Cincinnati, Ohio, USA; dDepartment of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Biochemistry, AB Hässle, Mölndal, Sweden
          Article
          158743 Blood Vessels 1988;25:299–307
          10.1159/000158743
          © 1988 S. Karger AG, Basel

          Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

          Page count
          Pages: 9
          Categories
          Research Paper

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