Junichi Yasui 1 , Eiji Kawasaki 1 , 2 , * , Shoichiro Tanaka 3 , Takuya Awata 4 , Hiroshi Ikegami 5 , Akihisa Imagawa 6 , Yasuko Uchigata 7 , Haruhiko Osawa 8 , Hiroshi Kajio 9 , Yumiko Kawabata 5 , Akira Shimada 10 , Kazuma Takahashi 11 , Kazuki Yasuda 12 , Hisafumi Yasuda 13 , Toshiaki Hanafusa 14 , Tetsuro Kobayashi 15 , Japan Diabetes Society Committee on Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Research
13 May 2016
Glutamic acid decarboxylase autoantibodies (GADAb) differentiate slowly progressive insulin-dependent (type 1) diabetes mellitus (SPIDDM) from phenotypic type 2 diabetes, but many GADAb-positive patients with diabetes do not progress to insulin-requiring diabetes. To characterize GADAb-positive patients with adult-onset diabetes who do not require insulin therapy for >5 years (NIR-SPIDDM), we conducted a nationwide cross-sectional survey in Japan.
We collected 82 GADAb-positive patients who did not require insulin therapy for >5 years (NIR-SPIDDM) and compared them with 63 patients with insulin-requiring SPIDDM (IR-SPIDDM). Clinical and biochemical characteristics, HLA-DRB1-DQB1 haplotypes, and predictive markers for progression to insulin therapy were investigated.
Compared with the IR-SPIDDM group, the NIR-SPIDDM patients showed later diabetes onset, higher body mass index, longer duration before diagnosis, and less frequent hyperglycemic symptoms at onset. In addition, C-peptide, LDL-cholesterol, and TG were significantly higher in the NIR-SPIDDM compared to IR-SPIDDM patients. The NIR-SPIDDM group had lower frequency of susceptible HLA-DRB1*04:05-DQB1*04:01 and a higher frequency of resistant HLA-DRB1*15:01-DQB1*06:02 haplotype compared to IR-SPIDDM. A multivariable analysis showed that age at diabetes onset (OR = 0.82), duration before diagnosis of GADAb-positive diabetes (OR = 0.82), higher GADAb level (≥10.0 U/ml) (OR = 20.41), and fasting C-peptide at diagnosis (OR = 0.07) were independent predictive markers for progression to insulin-requiring diabetes. An ROC curve analysis showed that the optimal cut-off points for discriminating two groups was the GADAb level of 13.6 U/ml, age of diabetes onset of 47 years, duration before diagnosis of 5 years, and fasting C-peptide of 0.65 ng/ml.
Clinical, biochemical and genetic characteristics of patients with NIR-SPIDDM are different from those of IR-SPIDDM patients. Age of diabetes onset, duration before GADAb-positivity, GADAb level, and fasting C-peptide at diagnosis must be carefully considered in planning prevention trials for SPIDDM.