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      The Same yet Different: Oral and Silent Reading in Children and Adolescents with Dyslexia

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          Abstract

          Dyslexia is characterized by poor word reading. In research, education, and diagnosis, oral reading is commonly assessed, and outcomes are generalized to silent reading, although similarities and differences between oral and silent reading are poorly understood. We therefore compared oral word reading, oral text reading and silent text reading. Children ( n = 40; aged 8–11) and adolescents ( n = 54; aged 14–18) with dyslexia, and typical readers ( n = 18, and n = 24 respectively), read a word-list and an age-appropriate text aloud, and silently read a text including instructions for simple tasks. Whereas oral and silent reading fluency were comparable for children, silent reading was more fluent than oral reading for adolescents. Importantly, the silent reading deficit of children and adolescents with dyslexia was as large as in oral reading or larger, highlighting the need for a focus on both reading modes in research, diagnosis and treatment of dyslexia.

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          Most cited references37

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          A definition of dyslexia

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            Foundation literacy acquisition in European orthographies.

            Several previous studies have suggested that basic decoding skills may develop less effectively in English than in some other European orthographies. The origins of this effect in the early (foundation) phase of reading acquisition are investigated through assessments of letter knowledge, familiar word reading, and simple nonword reading in English and 12 other orthographies. The results confirm that children from a majority of European countries become accurate and fluent in foundation level reading before the end of the first school year. There are some exceptions, notably in French, Portuguese, Danish, and, particularly, in English. The effects appear not to be attributable to differences in age of starting or letter knowledge. It is argued that fundamental linguistic differences in syllabic complexity and orthographic depth are responsible. Syllabic complexity selectively affects decoding, whereas orthographic depth affects both word reading and nonword reading. The rate of development in English is more than twice as slow as in the shallow orthographies. It is hypothesized that the deeper orthographies induce the implementation of a dual (logographic + alphabetic) foundation which takes more than twice as long to establish as the single foundation required for the learning of a shallow orthography.
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              Phonological recoding and self-teaching: sine qua non of reading acquisition.

              The self-teaching hypothesis proposes that phonological recoding functions as a self-teaching mechanism enabling the learner to independently acquire an autonomous orthographic lexicon. Successful decoding encounters with novel letter strings provide opportunities to learn word-specific print-to-meaning connections. Although it may not play a central role in skilled word recognition, phonological recoding, by virtue of its self-teaching function, is regarded as critical to successful reading acquisition. This paper elaborates the self-teaching hypothesis proposed by Jorm and Share (1983), and reviews relevant evidence. Key features of phonological recoding include an item-based rather than stage-based role in development, the progressive "lexicalization" of the process of recoding, and the importance of phonological awareness and contextual information in resolving decoding ambiguity. Although phonological skills have been shown to be primary in reading acquisition, orthographic processing appears to be an important but secondary source of individual differences. This implies an asymmetrical pattern of dissociations in both developmental and acquired reading disorders. Strong relationships between word recognition, basic phonological processing abilities and phonemic awareness are also consistent with the self-teaching notion. Finally, it is noted that current models of word recognition (both PDP and dual-route) fail to address the quintessential problem of reading acquisition-independent generation of target pronunciations for novel orthographic strings.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                m.vandenboer@uva.nl
                l.bazen@uva.nl
                e.h.debree@uu.nl
                Journal
                J Psycholinguist Res
                J Psycholinguist Res
                Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
                Springer US (New York )
                0090-6905
                1573-6555
                4 March 2022
                4 March 2022
                2022
                : 51
                : 4
                : 803-817
                Affiliations
                GRID grid.7177.6, ISNI 0000000084992262, Research Institute of Child Development and Education, , University of Amsterdam, ; PO Box 15780, 1001 NG Amsterdam, The Netherlands
                Article
                9856
                10.1007/s10936-022-09856-w
                9338140
                35244816
                c79e7bb4-719b-4d60-af47-d7d25fa6c90b
                © The Author(s) 2022

                Open AccessThis article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

                History
                : 9 February 2022
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                © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2022

                Clinical Psychology & Psychiatry
                dyslexia,oral reading,silent reading,reading fluency
                Clinical Psychology & Psychiatry
                dyslexia, oral reading, silent reading, reading fluency

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