Osteosarcoma (OS) is a relatively rare tumor of bone with a worldwide incidence of 3.4 cases per million people per year. For most of the twentieth century, five-year survival rates for classic OS were very low. In the 1970s, the introduction of adjuvant chemotherapy in the treatment of OS increased survival rates dramatically. The current article reviews the various types of OS and analyzes the clinical and histological features. We also examine historical and current literature to present a succinct review of methods for diagnosis and staging, as well as treatment, and we also discuss some of the future directions of treatment.