Blog
About

648
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    8
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Ischemic Posterior Circulation Stroke: A Review of Anatomy, Clinical Presentations, Diagnosis, and Current Management

      Read this article at

      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Posterior circulation strokes represent approximately 20% of all ischemic strokes ( 1, 2). In contrast to the anterior circulation, several differences in presenting symptoms, clinical evaluation, diagnostic testing, and management strategy exist presenting a challenge to the treating physician. This review will discuss the anatomical, etiological, and clinical classification of PC strokes, identify diagnostic pitfalls, and overview current therapeutic regimens.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 99

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Stenting versus aggressive medical therapy for intracranial arterial stenosis.

          Atherosclerotic intracranial arterial stenosis is an important cause of stroke that is increasingly being treated with percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stenting (PTAS) to prevent recurrent stroke. However, PTAS has not been compared with medical management in a randomized trial. We randomly assigned patients who had a recent transient ischemic attack or stroke attributed to stenosis of 70 to 99% of the diameter of a major intracranial artery to aggressive medical management alone or aggressive medical management plus PTAS with the use of the Wingspan stent system. The primary end point was stroke or death within 30 days after enrollment or after a revascularization procedure for the qualifying lesion during the follow-up period or stroke in the territory of the qualifying artery beyond 30 days. Enrollment was stopped after 451 patients underwent randomization, because the 30-day rate of stroke or death was 14.7% in the PTAS group (nonfatal stroke, 12.5%; fatal stroke, 2.2%) and 5.8% in the medical-management group (nonfatal stroke, 5.3%; non-stroke-related death, 0.4%) (P=0.002). Beyond 30 days, stroke in the same territory occurred in 13 patients in each group. Currently, the mean duration of follow-up, which is ongoing, is 11.9 months. The probability of the occurrence of a primary end-point event over time differed significantly between the two treatment groups (P=0.009), with 1-year rates of the primary end point of 20.0% in the PTAS group and 12.2% in the medical-management group. In patients with intracranial arterial stenosis, aggressive medical management was superior to PTAS with the use of the Wingspan stent system, both because the risk of early stroke after PTAS was high and because the risk of stroke with aggressive medical therapy alone was lower than expected. (Funded by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke and others; SAMMPRIS ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00576693.).
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Intra-arterial prourokinase for acute ischemic stroke. The PROACT II study: a randomized controlled trial. Prolyse in Acute Cerebral Thromboembolism.

            Intravenous tissue-type plasminogen activator can be beneficial to some patients when given within 3 hours of stroke onset, but many patients present later after stroke onset and alternative treatments are needed. To determine the clinical efficacy and safety of intra-arterial (IA) recombinant prourokinase (r-proUK) in patients with acute stroke of less than 6 hours' duration caused by middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion. PROACT II (Prolyse in Acute Cerebral Thromboembolism II), a randomized, controlled, multicenter, open-label clinical trial with blinded follow-up conducted between February 1996 and August 1998. Fifty-four centers in the United States and Canada. A total of 180 patients with acute ischemic stroke of less than 6 hours' duration caused by angiographically proven occlusion of the MCA and without hemorrhage or major early infarction signs on computed tomographic scan. Patients were randomized to receive 9 mg of IA r-proUK plus heparin (n = 121) or heparin only (n = 59). The primary outcome, analyzed by intention-to-treat, was based on the proportion of patients with slight or no neurological disability at 90 days as defined by a modified Rankin score of 2 or less. Secondary outcomes included MCA recanalization, the frequency of intracranial hemorrhage with neurological deterioration, and mortality. For the primary analysis, 40% of r-proUK patients and 25% of control patients had a modified Rankin score of 2 or less (P = .04). Mortality was 25% for the r-proUK group and 27% for the control group. The recanalization rate was 66% for the r-proUK group and 18% for the control group (P<.001). Intracranial hemorrhage with neurological deterioration within 24 hours occurred in 10% of r-proUK patients and 2% of control patients (P = .06). Despite an increased frequency of early symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage, treatment with IA r-proUK within 6 hours of the onset of acute ischemic stroke caused by MCA occlusion significantly improved clinical outcome at 90 days.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Analysis of 1008 consecutive patients aged 15 to 49 with first-ever ischemic stroke: the Helsinki young stroke registry.

              To analyze trends in occurrence, risk factors, etiology, and neuroimaging features of ischemic stroke in young adults in a large cohort. We evaluated all 1008 consecutive ischemic stroke patients aged 15 to 49 admitted to Helsinki University Central Hospital, 1994 to 2007. Etiology was classified by Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment criteria. Comparisons were done between groups stratified by gender and age. Estimated annual occurrence was 10.8/100,000 (range 8.4 to 13.0), increasing exponentially with aging. Of our 628 male and 380 female (ratio 1.7:1) patients, females were preponderant among those 44 clearly had more risk factors. Cardioembolism (20%) and cervicocerebral artery dissection (15%) were the most frequent etiologic subgroups. Proportions of large-artery atherosclerosis (8%) and small-vessel disease (14%) began to enlarge at age 35, whereas frequency of undetermined etiology (33%) decreased along aging. Posterior circulation infarcts were more common among patients <45 years of age. Left hemisphere infarcts were more frequent in general. There were 235 (23%) patients with multiple and 126 (13%) with silent infarcts, and 55 (5%) patients had leukoaraiosis. The frequency of ischemic stroke increases sharply at age 40. Etiology and risk factors start resembling those seen in the elderly in early midlife but causes defined in younger patients still are frequent in those aged 45 to 49. Subclinical infarcts were surprisingly common in the young.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Neurol
                Front Neurol
                Front. Neurol.
                Frontiers in Neurology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1664-2295
                07 April 2014
                2014
                : 5
                Affiliations
                1Department of Neurology, Stritch School of Medicine, Loyola University Chicago , Maywood, IL, USA
                2Department of Emergency Medicine, Advocate Christ Medical Center , Oak Lawn, IL, USA
                Author notes

                Edited by: Edward Manno, Cleveland Clinic, USA

                Reviewed by: Joseph D. Burns, Boston University, USA; Ira Chang, Swedish Medical Center, USA; Venkatesh Aiyagari, UT Southwestern Medical Center, USA

                *Correspondence: Sean Ruland, Department of Neurology, Stritch School of Medicine, Loyola University Chicago, 2160 S. 1st Avenue, Building 105, Room 2700, Maywood, Chicago, IL 60153, USA e-mail: sruland@ 123456lumc.edu

                This article was submitted to Neurocritical and Neurohospitalist Care, a section of the journal Frontiers in Neurology.

                Article
                10.3389/fneur.2014.00030
                3985033
                24778625
                Copyright © 2014 Nouh, Remke and Ruland.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 3, Equations: 0, References: 120, Pages: 16, Words: 11658
                Categories
                Neuroscience
                Review Article

                Neurology

                stroke management, posterior circulation, stroke, basilar artery, vertebral artery

                Comments

                Comment on this article