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      Chemiluminescence and Bioluminescence as an Excitation Source in the Photodynamic Therapy of Cancer: A Critical Review

      1 , 1 , 2 , 1
      ChemPhysChem
      Wiley

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          Activatable photosensitizers for imaging and therapy.

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            ROS stress in cancer cells and therapeutic implications.

            Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are constantly generated and eliminated in the biological system, and play important roles in a variety of normal biochemical functions and abnormal pathological processes. Growing evidence suggests that cancer cells exhibit increased intrinsic ROS stress, due in part to oncogenic stimulation, increased metabolic activity, and mitochondrial malfunction. Since the mitochondrial respiratory chain (electron transport complexes) is a major source of ROS generation in the cells, the vulnerability of the mitochondrial DNA to ROS-mediated damage appears to be a mechanism to amplify ROS stress in cancer cells. The escalated ROS generation in cancer cells serves as an endogenous source of DNA-damaging agents that promote genetic instability and development of drug resistance. Malfunction of mitochondria also alters cellular apoptotic response to anticancer agents. Despite the negative impacts of increased ROS in cancer cells, it is possible to exploit this biochemical feature and develop novel therapeutic strategies to preferentially kill cancer cells through ROS-mediated mechanisms. This article reviews ROS stress in cancer cells, its underlying mechanisms and relationship with mitochondrial malfunction and alteration in drug sensitivity, and suggests new therapeutic strategies that take advantage of increased ROS in cancer cells to enhance therapeutic activity and selectivity.
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              The role of porphyrin chemistry in tumor imaging and photodynamic therapy.

              In recent years several review articles and books have been published on the use of porphyrin-based compounds in photodynamic therapy (PDT). This critical review is focused on (i) the basic concept of PDT, (ii) advantages of long-wavelength absorbing photosensitizers (PS), (iii) a brief discussion on recent advances in developing PDT agents, and (iv) the various synthetic strategies designed at the Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, for developing highly effective long-wavelength PDT agents and their utility in constructing the conjugates with tumor-imaging and therapeutic potential (Theranostics). The clinical status of certain selected PDT agents is also summarized (205 references).
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                (View ORCID Profile)
                (View ORCID Profile)
                Journal
                ChemPhysChem
                ChemPhysChem
                Wiley
                14394235
                August 04 2016
                August 04 2016
                May 25 2016
                : 17
                : 15
                : 2286-2294
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Centro de Investigação em Química; Departamento de Química e Bioquímica; Faculdade de Ciências; Universidade do Porto; R. Campo Alegre 687 4169-007 Porto Portugal
                [2 ]Centro de Investigação em Química; Departamento de Geociências, Ambiente e Ordenamento do Território; Faculdade de Ciências; Universidade do Porto; R. Campo Alegre 687 4169-007 Porto Portugal
                Article
                10.1002/cphc.201600270
                27129132
                c7b222d7-954f-40e5-8d21-16a8bc9efb1e
                © 2016

                http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/tdm_license_1.1

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