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      Incidence and Predictors of Development of Acute Renal Failure Related to Treatment of Congestive Heart Failure with ACE Inhibitors

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          Background/Aims: Recent studies have shown high rates of morbimortality associated with hyperkalemia in congestive heart failure (CHF) patients treated with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) plus spironolactone and the best predictor of this electrolytic disorder was a decrease in renal function. We aim to identify the incidence and predictors of acute renal failure (ARF) related to treatment with ACEI associated or not with spironolactone. Methods: We conducted a cohort study and followed 114 consecutive cases of CHF patients treated with ACEI at admission to a University Hospital. We performed measurements of serum creatinine and potassium levels three times a week, and systolic and diastolic blood pressures every 8 h, daily. Results: Among 114 patients, 25% developed ARF, 15% hyperkalemia and 3% severe hyperkalemia. Predictors of ARF were a decrease in average blood pressure 25 mm Hg (OR 18.2; 95% CI: 6.2, 53.5); class IV CHF (OR 4.7; 95% CI: 1.7, 12.7), diabetes (OR 2.6; 95% CI: 1.1, 6.4) and hypertension (OR 3.0; 95% CI: 1.2, 7.4). Conclusions: ARF and hyperkalemia are common complications in CHF patients after treatment with ACEI. Diabetic, hypertensive and class IV CHF patients who experienced a decrease in average blood pressure 25 mm Hg were more susceptible to ARF.

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          Most cited references 12

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          Incidence, predictors at admission, and impact of worsening renal function among patients hospitalized with heart failure.

          The goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of worsening renal function (WRF) among hospitalized heart failure (HF) patients, clinical predictors of WRF, and hospital outcomes associated with WRF. Impaired renal function is associated with poor outcomes among chronic HF patients. Chart reviews were performed on 1,004 consecutive patients admitted for a primary diagnosis of HF from 11 geographically diverse hospitals. Cox regression model analysis was used to identify independent predictors for WRF, defined as a rise in serum creatinine of >0.3 mg/dl (26.5 micromol/l). Bivariate analysis was used to determine associations of development of WRF with outcomes (in-hospital death, in-hospital complications, and length of stay). Among 1,004 HF patients studied, WRF developed in 27%. In the majority of cases, WRF occurred within three days of admission. History of HF or diabetes mellitus, admission creatinine > or =1.5 mg/dl (132.6 micromol/l), and systolic blood pressure >160 mm Hg were independently associated with higher risk of WRF. A point score based on these characteristics and their relative risk ratios predicted those at risk for WRF. Hospital deaths (adjusted risk ratio [ARR] 7.5; 95% confidence intervals [CI] 2.9, 19.3), complications (ARR 2.1; CI 1.5, 3.0), and length of hospitalizations >10 days (ARR 3.2, CI 2.2, 4.9) were greater among patients with WRF. Worsening renal function occurs frequently among hospitalized HF patients and is associated with significantly worse outcomes. Clinical characteristics available at hospital admission can be used to identify patients at increased risk for developing WRF.
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            Renal function as a predictor of outcome in a broad spectrum of patients with heart failure.

            Decreased renal function has been found to be an independent risk factor for cardiovascular outcomes in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) with markedly reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). The aim of this analysis was to evaluate the prognostic importance of renal function in a broader spectrum of patients with CHF. The Candesartan in Heart Failure:Assessment of Reduction in Mortality and Morbidity (CHARM) program consisted of three component trials that enrolled patients with symptomatic CHF, based on use of ACE inhibitors and reduced ( 40%). Entry baseline creatinine was required to be below 3.0 mg/dL (265 micromol/L). Routine baseline serum creatinine assessments were done in 2680 North American patients. An analysis of the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation and LVEF on risk of cardiovascular death or hospitalization for heart failure, as well as on all-cause mortality, was conducted on these 2680 patients. The proportion of patients with eGFR <60 mL/min per 1.73 m2 was 36.0%; 42.6% for CHARM-Alternative, 33.0% for CHARM-Added, and 34.7% for CHARM-Preserved. During the median follow-up of 34.4 months (total 6493 person-years), the primary outcome of cardiovascular death or hospital admission for worsening CHF occurred in 950 of 2680 subjects. Both reduced eGFR and lower LVEF were found to be significant independent predictors of worse outcome after adjustment for major confounding baseline clinical characteristics. The risk for cardiovascular death or hospitalization for worsening CHF as well as the risk for all-cause mortality increased significantly below an eGFR of 60 mL/min per 1.73 m2 (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.54 for 45 to 60 mL/min per 1.73 m2 and 1.86 for <45 mL/min per 1.73 m2 for the primary outcome, both P<0.001, and hazard ratio of 1.50, P=0.006, and 1.91, P=0.001, respectively, for all-cause mortality). The prognostic value of eGFR was not significantly different among the three component trials. There was no significant interaction between renal function, the effect of candesartan, and clinical outcome. Impaired renal function is independently associated with heightened risk for death, cardiovascular death, and hospitalization for heart failure in patients with CHF with both preserved as well as reduced LVEF. There was no evidence that the beneficial effect of candesartan was modified by baseline eGFR.
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              Complications of inappropriate use of spironolactone in heart failure: when an old medicine spirals out of new guidelines.

              This study was designed to investigate the appropriateness and complications of the use of spironolactone for heart failure (HF) in clinical practice. Spironolactone was reported by one prospective randomized trial to decrease morbidity and mortality in patients with New York Heart Association (NYHA) class III and IV HF. With this report (Randomized Spironolactone Evaluation Study [RALES] trial), we noted a marked increase in widespread use of spironolactone in patients with HF. Long-term outcome data with respect to safety and utilization of this medication in HF are not available. To investigate the use of spironolactone for HF in a clinical setting, we analyzed the application of the RALES trial protocol to the care of 104 patients, whom we identified as being started on spironolactone for HF after prerelease of the RALES trial. We found broader use, less intensive follow-up, and increased complications with spironolactone treatment compared with the RALES trial. Cardiologists provided more appropriate care than did primary care providers. These data suggest that spironolactone is being used widely in HF without consideration of the NYHA class and ejection fraction, and without optimization of background treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and beta-blockers. Clinical follow-up does not adhere to the RALES trial guidelines, resulting in higher complications. We conclude that long-term studies with further safety and efficacy data are needed.

                Author and article information

                Nephron Clin Pract
                Nephron Clinical Practice
                S. Karger AG
                January 2007
                01 December 2006
                : 105
                : 2
                : c77-c83
                aCurso de Pós-graduação e Extensão em Saúde Humana da Fundação Bahiana para Desenvolvimento das
                97658 Nephron Clin Pract 2007;105:c77–c83
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

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