Background/Aims: Recent studies have shown high rates of morbimortality associated with hyperkalemia in congestive heart failure (CHF) patients treated with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) plus spironolactone and the best predictor of this electrolytic disorder was a decrease in renal function. We aim to identify the incidence and predictors of acute renal failure (ARF) related to treatment with ACEI associated or not with spironolactone. Methods: We conducted a cohort study and followed 114 consecutive cases of CHF patients treated with ACEI at admission to a University Hospital. We performed measurements of serum creatinine and potassium levels three times a week, and systolic and diastolic blood pressures every 8 h, daily. Results: Among 114 patients, 25% developed ARF, 15% hyperkalemia and 3% severe hyperkalemia. Predictors of ARF were a decrease in average blood pressure 25 mm Hg (OR 18.2; 95% CI: 6.2, 53.5); class IV CHF (OR 4.7; 95% CI: 1.7, 12.7), diabetes (OR 2.6; 95% CI: 1.1, 6.4) and hypertension (OR 3.0; 95% CI: 1.2, 7.4). Conclusions: ARF and hyperkalemia are common complications in CHF patients after treatment with ACEI. Diabetic, hypertensive and class IV CHF patients who experienced a decrease in average blood pressure 25 mm Hg were more susceptible to ARF.