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      Biostimulant Action of Protein Hydrolysates: Unraveling Their Effects on Plant Physiology and Microbiome

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          Abstract

          Plant-derived protein hydrolysates (PHs) have gained prominence as plant biostimulants because of their potential to increase the germination, productivity and quality of a wide range of horticultural and agronomic crops. Application of PHs can also alleviate the negative effects of abiotic plant stress due to salinity, drought and heavy metals. Recent studies aimed at uncovering the mechanisms regulating these beneficial effects indicate that PHs could be directly affecting plants by stimulating carbon and nitrogen metabolism, and interfering with hormonal activity. Indirect effects could also play a role as PHs could enhance nutrient availability in plant growth substrates, and increase nutrient uptake and nutrient-use efficiency in plants. Moreover, the beneficial effects of PHs also could be due to the stimulation of plant microbiomes. Plants are colonized by an abundant and diverse assortment of microbial taxa that can help plants acquire nutrients and water and withstand biotic and abiotic stress. The substrates provided by PHs, such as amino acids, could provide an ideal food source for these plant-associated microbes. Indeed, recent studies have provided evidence that plant microbiomes are modified by the application of PHs, supporting the hypothesis that PHs might be acting, at least in part, via changes in the composition and activity of these microbial communities. Application of PHs has great potential to meet the twin challenges of a feeding a growing population while minimizing agriculture’s impact on human health and the environment. However, to fully realize the potential of PHs, further studies are required to shed light on the mechanisms conferring the beneficial effects of these products, as well as identify product formulations and application methods that optimize benefits under a range of agro-ecological conditions.

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          The Soil Microbiome Influences Grapevine-Associated Microbiota

          ABSTRACT Grapevine is a well-studied, economically relevant crop, whose associated bacteria could influence its organoleptic properties. In this study, the spatial and temporal dynamics of the bacterial communities associated with grapevine organs (leaves, flowers, grapes, and roots) and soils were characterized over two growing seasons to determine the influence of vine cultivar, edaphic parameters, vine developmental stage (dormancy, flowering, preharvest), and vineyard. Belowground bacterial communities differed significantly from those aboveground, and yet the communities associated with leaves, flowers, and grapes shared a greater proportion of taxa with soil communities than with each other, suggesting that soil may serve as a bacterial reservoir. A subset of soil microorganisms, including root colonizers significantly enriched in plant growth-promoting bacteria and related functional genes, were selected by the grapevine. In addition to plant selective pressure, the structure of soil and root microbiota was significantly influenced by soil pH and C:N ratio, and changes in leaf- and grape-associated microbiota were correlated with soil carbon and showed interannual variation even at small spatial scales. Diazotrophic bacteria, e.g., Rhizobiaceae and Bradyrhizobium spp., were significantly more abundant in soil samples and root samples of specific vineyards. Vine-associated microbial assemblages were influenced by myriad factors that shape their composition and structure, but the majority of organ-associated taxa originated in the soil, and their distribution reflected the influence of highly localized biogeographic factors and vineyard management.
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            Plant compartment and biogeography affect microbiome composition in cultivated and native Agave species

            Summary Desert plants are hypothesized to survive the environmental stress inherent to these regions in part thanks to symbioses with microorganisms, and yet these microbial species, the communities they form, and the forces that influence them are poorly understood. Here we report the first comprehensive investigation of the microbial communities associated with species of Agave, which are native to semiarid and arid regions of Central and North America and are emerging as biofuel feedstocks. We examined prokaryotic and fungal communities in the rhizosphere, phyllosphere, leaf and root endosphere, as well as proximal and distal soil samples from cultivated and native agaves, through Illumina amplicon sequencing. Phylogenetic profiling revealed that the composition of prokaryotic communities was primarily determined by the plant compartment, whereas the composition of fungal communities was mainly influenced by the biogeography of the host species. Cultivated A. tequilana exhibited lower levels of prokaryotic diversity compared with native agaves, although no differences in microbial diversity were found in the endosphere. Agaves shared core prokaryotic and fungal taxa known to promote plant growth and confer tolerance to abiotic stress, which suggests common principles underpinning Agave–microbe interactions.
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              The importance of the microbiome of the plant holobiont.

              Plants can no longer be considered as standalone entities and a more holistic perception is needed. Indeed, plants harbor a wide diversity of microorganisms both inside and outside their tissues, in the endosphere and ectosphere, respectively. These microorganisms, which mostly belong to Bacteria and Fungi, are involved in major functions such as plant nutrition and plant resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Hence, the microbiota impact plant growth and survival, two key components of fitness. Plant fitness is therefore a consequence of the plant per se and its microbiota, which collectively form a holobiont. Complementary to the reductionist perception of evolutionary pressures acting on plant or symbiotic compartments, the plant holobiont concept requires a novel perception of evolution. The interlinkages between the plant holobiont components are explored here in the light of current ecological and evolutionary theories. Microbiome complexity and the rules of microbiotic community assemblage are not yet fully understood. It is suggested that the plant can modulate its microbiota to dynamically adjust to its environment. To better understand the level of plant dependence on the microbiotic components, the core microbiota need to be determined at different hierarchical scales of ecology while pan-microbiome analyses would improve characterization of the functions displayed. © 2015 The Authors New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Plant Sci
                Front Plant Sci
                Front. Plant Sci.
                Frontiers in Plant Science
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1664-462X
                22 December 2017
                2017
                : 8
                Affiliations
                [1] 1Department of Agricultural and Forestry Sciences, University of Tuscia , Viterbo, Italy
                [2] 2Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, Purdue University , West Lafayette, IN, United States
                [3] 3Department for Innovation in Biological, Agrofood and Forest Systems, University of Tuscia , Viterbo, Italy
                [4] 4Consiglio per la Ricerca in Agricoltura e l’Analisi dell’Economia Agraria, Centro di Ricerca Orticoltura e Florovivaismo , Pontecagnano, Italy
                [5] 5NGA Laboratory , Tarragona, Spain
                [6] 6Nixe , Valbonne, France
                [7] 7Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of Naples Federico II , Portici, Italy
                Author notes

                Edited by: Angeles Calatayud, Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Agrarias, Spain

                Reviewed by: Sergio Mugnai, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Netherlands; Ana Quiñones, Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Agrarias, Spain

                *Correspondence: Giuseppe Colla, giucolla@ 123456unitus.it

                This article was submitted to Crop and Product Physiology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Plant Science

                Article
                10.3389/fpls.2017.02202
                5744479
                c7bb7b0e-9ef7-49b5-a22c-cc02c3229e9f
                Copyright © 2017 Colla, Hoagland, Ruzzi, Cardarelli, Bonini, Canaguier and Rouphael.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 134, Pages: 14, Words: 0
                Categories
                Plant Science
                Review

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