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      Advances in the drug therapies of acute myeloid leukemia (except acute wpromyelocytic leukemia)

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          Abstract

          Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a heterogeneous hematologic malignancy, characterized by the clonal expansion of myeloid blasts in the peripheral blood, bone marrow, and/or other tissues. The new drugs used for treating AML are facing a big challenge, and the candidates include cytotoxic drugs, targeted small-molecule inhibitors, and monoclonal antibodies. In recent years, active research has focused on several new agents for including them in the large antileukemic drug family. This review aims to introduce some of these new drugs and highlights new advances made in the old drugs, mainly in the last 5 years.

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          Most cited references 59

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          Efficacy of azacitidine compared with that of conventional care regimens in the treatment of higher-risk myelodysplastic syndromes: a randomised, open-label, phase III study.

          Drug treatments for patients with high-risk myelodysplastic syndromes provide no survival advantage. In this trial, we aimed to assess the effect of azacitidine on overall survival compared with the three commonest conventional care regimens. In a phase III, international, multicentre, controlled, parallel-group, open-label trial, patients with higher-risk myelodysplastic syndromes were randomly assigned one-to-one to receive azacitidine (75 mg/m(2) per day for 7 days every 28 days) or conventional care (best supportive care, low-dose cytarabine, or intensive chemotherapy as selected by investigators before randomisation). Patients were stratified by French-American-British and international prognostic scoring system classifications; randomisation was done with a block size of four. The primary endpoint was overall survival. Efficacy analyses were by intention to treat for all patients assigned to receive treatment. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00071799. Between Feb 13, 2004, and Aug 7, 2006, 358 patients were randomly assigned to receive azacitidine (n=179) or conventional care regimens (n=179). Four patients in the azacitidine and 14 in the conventional care groups received no study drugs but were included in the intention-to-treat efficacy analysis. After a median follow-up of 21.1 months (IQR 15.1-26.9), median overall survival was 24.5 months (9.9-not reached) for the azacitidine group versus 15.0 months (5.6-24.1) for the conventional care group (hazard ratio 0.58; 95% CI 0.43-0.77; stratified log-rank p=0.0001). At last follow-up, 82 patients in the azacitidine group had died compared with 113 in the conventional care group. At 2 years, on the basis of Kaplan-Meier estimates, 50.8% (95% CI 42.1-58.8) of patients in the azacitidine group were alive compared with 26.2% (18.7-34.3) in the conventional care group (p<0.0001). Peripheral cytopenias were the most common grade 3-4 adverse events for all treatments. Treatment with azacitidine increases overall survival in patients with higher-risk myelodysplastic syndromes relative to conventional care.
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            Azacitidine prolongs overall survival compared with conventional care regimens in elderly patients with low bone marrow blast count acute myeloid leukemia.

            In a phase III randomized trial, azacitidine significantly prolonged overall survival (OS) compared with conventional care regimens (CCRs) in patients with intermediate-2- and high-risk myelodysplastic syndromes. Approximately one third of these patients were classified as having acute myeloid leukemia (AML) under current WHO criteria. This analysis compared the effects of azacitidine versus CCR on OS in this subgroup. Patients were randomly assigned to receive subcutaneous azacitidine 75 mg/m(2)/d or CCR (best supportive care [BSC] only, low-dose cytarabine (LDAC), or intensive chemotherapy [IC]). Of the 113 elderly patients (median age, 70 years) randomly assigned to receive azacitidine (n = 55) or CCR (n = 58; 47% BSC, 34% LDAC, 19% IC), 86% were considered unfit for IC. At a median follow-up of 20.1 months, median OS for azacitidine-treated patients was 24.5 months compared with 16.0 months for CCR-treated patients (hazard ratio = 0.47; 95% CI, 0.28 to 0.79; P = .005), and 2-year OS rates were 50% and 16%, respectively (P = .001). Two-year OS rates were higher with azacitidine versus CCR in patients considered unfit for IC (P = .0003). Azacitidine was associated with fewer total days in hospital (P < .0001) than CCR. In older adult patients with low marrow blast count (20% to 30%) WHO-defined AML, azacitidine significantly prolongs OS and significantly improves several patient morbidity measures compared with CCR.
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              Acute myeloid leukemia ontogeny is defined by distinct somatic mutations.

              Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) can develop after an antecedent myeloid malignancy (secondary AML [s-AML]), after leukemogenic therapy (therapy-related AML [t-AML]), or without an identifiable prodrome or known exposure (de novo AML). The genetic basis of these distinct pathways of AML development has not been determined. We performed targeted mutational analysis of 194 patients with rigorously defined s-AML or t-AML and 105 unselected AML patients. The presence of a mutation in SRSF2, SF3B1, U2AF1, ZRSR2, ASXL1, EZH2, BCOR, or STAG2 was >95% specific for the diagnosis of s-AML. Analysis of serial samples from individual patients revealed that these mutations occur early in leukemogenesis and often persist in clonal remissions. In t-AML and elderly de novo AML populations, these alterations define a distinct genetic subtype that shares clinicopathologic properties with clinically confirmed s-AML and highlights a subset of patients with worse clinical outcomes, including a lower complete remission rate, more frequent reinduction, and decreased event-free survival. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00715637.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2018
                30 April 2018
                : 12
                : 1009-1017
                Affiliations
                Department of Hematology and Oncology, Zhongda Hospital, School of Medicine, Southeast University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Baoan Chen, Department of Hematology and Oncology, Zhongda Hospital, School of Medicine, Southeast University, 87 Dingjiaqiao, Gulou, Nanjing 210009, Jiangsu, People’s Republic of China, Email cba8888@ 123456hotmail.com
                Article
                dddt-12-1009
                10.2147/DDDT.S161199
                5933364
                © 2018 Lin and Chen. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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