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      Neuron-Like Differentiation of Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

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          Abstract

          Purpose

          Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent and give rise to distinctly differentiated cells from all three germ layers. Neuronal differentiation of MSC has great potential for cellular therapy. We examined whether the cluster of mechanically made, not neurosphere, could be differentiated into neuron-like cells by growth factors, such as epidermal growth factor (EGF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF).

          Materials and Methods

          BMSCs grown confluent were mechanically separated with cell scrapers and masses of separated cells were cultured to form cluster BMSCs. As described here cluster of BMSCs were differentiated into neuron-like cells by EGF, HGF, and VEGF. Differentiated cells were analyzed by means of phase-contrast inverted microscopy, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), immunofluorescence, and immunocytochemistry to identify the expression of neural specific markers.

          Results

          For the group with growth factors, the shapes of neuron-like cells was observable a week later, and two weeks later, most cells were similar in shape to neuron-like cells. Particularly, in the group with chemical addition, various shapes of filament structures were seen among the cells. These culture conditions induced MSCs to exhibit a neural cell phenotype, expressing several neuro-glial specific markers.

          Conclusion

          bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) could be easily induced to form clusters using mechanical scraping, not neurospheres, which in turn could differentiate further into neuron-like cells and might open an attractive possibility for clinical cell therapy for neurodegenerative diseases. In the future, we consider that neuron-like cells differentiated from clusters of BMSCs are needed to be compared and analyzed on a physiological and molecular biological level with preexisting neuronal cells, and studies on the possibility of their transplantation and differentiation capability in animal models are further required.

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          Most cited references54

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          Generation of neurons and astrocytes from isolated cells of the adult mammalian central nervous system.

          Neurogenesis in the mammalian central nervous system is believed to end in the period just after birth; in the mouse striatum no new neurons are produced after the first few days after birth. In this study, cells isolated from the striatum of the adult mouse brain were induced to proliferate in vitro by epidermal growth factor. The proliferating cells initially expressed nestin, an intermediate filament found in neuroepithelial stem cells, and subsequently developed the morphology and antigenic properties of neurons and astrocytes. Newly generated cells with neuronal morphology were immunoreactive for gamma-aminobutyric acid and substance P, two neurotransmitters of the adult striatum in vivo. Thus, cells of the adult mouse striatum have the capacity to divide and differentiate into neurons and astrocytes.
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            Adult rat and human bone marrow stromal cells differentiate into neurons.

            Bone marrow stromal cells exhibit multiple traits of a stem cell population. They can be greatly expanded in vitro and induced to differentiate into multiple mesenchymal cell types. However, differentiation to non-mesenchymal fates has not been demonstrated. Here, adult rat stromal cells were expanded as undifferentiated cells in culture for more than 20 passages, indicating their proliferative capacity. A simple treatment protocol induced the stromal cells to exhibit a neuronal phenotype, expressing neuron-specific enolase, NeuN, neurofilament-M, and tau. With an optimal differentiation protocol, almost 80% of the cells expressed NSE and NF-M. The refractile cell bodies extended long processes terminating in typical growth cones and filopodia. The differentiating cells expressed nestin, characteristic of neuronal precursor stem cells, at 5 hr, but the trait was undetectable at 6 days. In contrast, expression of trkA, the nerve growth factor receptor, persisted from 5 hr through 6 days. Clonal cell lines, established from single cells, proliferated, yielding both undifferentiated and neuronal cells. Human marrow stromal cells subjected to this protocol also differentiated into neurons. Consequently, adult marrow stromal cells can be induced to overcome their mesenchymal commitment and may constitute an abundant and accessible cellular reservoir for the treatment of a variety of neurologic diseases. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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              Transplantation of embryonic dopamine neurons for severe Parkinson's disease.

              Transplantation of human embryonic dopamine neurons into the brains of patients with Parkinson's disease has proved beneficial in open clinical trials. However, whether this intervention would be more effective than sham surgery in a controlled trial is not known. We randomly assigned 40 patients who were 34 to 75 years of age and had severe Parkinson's disease (mean duration, 14 years) to receive a transplant of nerve cells or sham surgery; all were to be followed in a double-blind manner for one year. In the transplant recipients, cultured mesencephalic tissue from four embryos was implanted into the putamen bilaterally. In the patients who received sham surgery, holes were drilled in the skull but the dura was not penetrated. The primary outcome was a subjective global rating of the change in the severity of disease, scored on a scale of -3.0 to 3.0 at one year, with negative scores indicating a worsening of symptoms and positive scores an improvement. The mean (+/-SD) scores on the global rating scale for improvement or deterioration at one year were 0.0+/-2.1 in the transplantation group and -0.4+/-1.7 in the sham-surgery group. Among younger patients (60 years old or younger), standardized tests of Parkinson's disease revealed significant improvement in the transplantation group as compared with the sham-surgery group when patients were tested in the morning before receiving medication (P=0.01 for scores on the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale; P=0.006 for the Schwab and England score). There was no significant improvement in older patients in the transplantation group. Fiber outgrowth from the transplanted neurons was detected in 17 of the 20 patients in the transplantation group, as indicated by an increase in 18F-fluorodopa uptake on positron-emission tomography or postmortem examination. After improvement in the first year, dystonia and dyskinesias recurred in 15 percent of the patients who received transplants, even after reduction or discontinuation of the dose of levodopa. Human embryonic dopamine-neuron transplants survive in patients with severe Parkinson's disease and result in some clinical benefit in younger but not in older patients.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Yonsei Med J
                YMJ
                Yonsei Medical Journal
                Yonsei University College of Medicine
                0513-5796
                1976-2437
                01 May 2011
                06 April 2011
                : 52
                : 3
                : 401-412
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Surgery, Yonsei University Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju, Korea.
                [2 ]Department of Hemato-Oncology, Yonsei University Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju, Korea.
                [3 ]Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Yonsei University Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju, Korea.
                [4 ]FCB-Pharmicell Co., Ltd. Seongnam, Korea.
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Dr. Seong Joon Kang, Department Surgery, Yonsei University Wonju College of Medicine, 162 Ilsan-dong, Wonju 220-701, Korea. Tel: 82-33-741-1306, Fax: 82-33-742-1815, mdkang@ 123456yonsei.ac.kr
                Article
                10.3349/ymj.2011.52.3.401
                3101055
                21488182
                c7ce2e66-8bf2-4478-9165-c7165a2eb221
                © Copyright: Yonsei University College of Medicine 2011

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                History
                : 17 April 2010
                : 25 July 2010
                : 26 July 2010
                Categories
                Original Article
                Neuroscience

                Medicine
                hepatocyte growth factor,neuron-like cells,vascular endothelial growth factor,mesenchymal stem cell,epidermal growth factor

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